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Table 5 Risk of lung cancer mortality among KNR workers with at least 15 years since first exposure by category of work, date of first exposure (for electrolysis & RSC departments) and duration of employment; ICNCM (1990) [3]

From: New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

  Duration of employment
Category of Work < 5 years   ≥ 5 years    Total
  Obs SMR   Obs SMR   Obs SMR  
Electrolysis:1          
   First exposure: 1946–1955 10 318 * 16 482 *** 26 402 ***
   First exposure: 1956–1969 1 152   3 448   4 300  
   Electrolysis: Total 11 289 * 19 476 *** 30 385 ***
Roasting, Smelting and Calcining:2          
   First exposure: 1946–1955 5 211   7 298   12 254 **
   First exposure: 1956–1969 1 139   1 128   2 133  
   RSC: Total 6 194   8 254 * 14 225 **
Other KNR Departments:3          
   Low level exposure4 1 73   5 267   6 187  
   Unexposed4 4 349   2 93   6 183  
   Other departments: Total5 5 250   18 275 ** 23 283 **
Refinery: Total6 22 247 ** 45 334 *** 67 299 ***
  1. 1 From Table forty three, ICNCM (1990) [3]. 2 From Table forty four, ICNCM (1990) [3]. 3 Labelled in previous KNR studies as 'other specified processes' and 'administrative, service and unspecified'. 4 From Table forty five, ICNCM (1990) [3]. 5 Calculated by equating time since first exposure in electrolysis or RSC departments with time since first employment in the refinery; and subtracting Electrolysis Total and RSC Total from Refinery Total. 6 From Table forty one, ICNCM (1990) [3]. * p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001.