Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 7 Total exposure to nickel and its species [mg Ni/m3 yr] predicted by ICNCM (1990) [3] and Grimsrud et al. (2000) [5] JEMs for a hypothetical KNR worker with 10 years of continuous postwar employment by time period & job category

From: New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

   Nickel exposure by species and total [mg Ni/m3 yr]
   ICNCM (1990) a Grimsrud et al. (2000) b
Category of work Time period c Metallic Oxidic Sulphidic Soluble Total Metallic Oxidic Sulphidic Soluble Total
Roasting (day workers) 1946–1955 3.0 100.0 3.0 0.0 106.0 1.2 29.0 6.0 4.0 40.3
  1956–1965 3.0 50.0 3.0 0.0 56.0 0.9 20.5 4.3 2.9 28.5
  1966–1975 3.0 50.0 3.0 0.0 56.0 0.8 18.6 3.9 2.6 25.8
  1976–1985 0.6 12.4 3.0 0.0 16.0 0.1 5.7 0.8 0.9 7.5
Old smelter bldg. no. 1 (day workers)c 1946–1955 13.0 100.0 3.0 0.0 116.0 5.7 26.1 1.6 3.7 37.0
  1956–1965 13.0 50.0 3.0 0.0 66.0 4.3 16.1 0.9 2.4 23.7
  1966–1975 5.0 12.4 11.0 0.0 28.4 3.7 14.0 0.8 2.1 20.6
Calcining, smelting 1946–1955 0.0 50.0 3.0 0.0 53.0 0.4 31.1 1.9 3.7 37.0
  1956–1965 0.0 50.0 3.0 0.0 53.0 0.2 20.6 1.2 2.4 24.5
  1966–1975 0.0 50.0 3.0 0.0 53.0 0.2 17.7 1.1 2.1 21.1
  1976–1985 0.0 12.4 3.0 0.0 15.4 0.1 6.2 0.8 0.9 8.0
Nickel electrolysisd 1946–1955 0.0 3.0 3.0 13.0 19.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.5 1.7
  1956–1965 0.0 3.0 3.0 13.0 19.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.5 1.7
  1966–1975 0.0 3.0 3.0 13.0 19.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.4 1.6
  1976–1985 0.0 0.6 0.6 5.0 6.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.9 1.1
Copper leaching 1946–1955 0.0 13.0 0.0 13.0 26.0 0.2 7.4 0.2 7.4 15.0
  1956–1965 0.0 13.0 0.0 13.0 26.0 0.1 4.9 0.1 4.9 10.1
  1966–1975 NA NA NA NA NA 0.1 4.4 0.1 4.4 9.0
  1976–1985 NA NA NA NA NA 0.0 1.7 0.0 1.7 3.4
Copper cementatione 1946–1955 13.0 13.0 0.0 13.0 39.0 5.3 0.6 0.6 5.3 11.8
  1956–1965 13.0 13.0 0.0 13.0 39.0 5.2 0.6 0.6 5.2 11.5
  1966–1975 13.0 13.0 0.0 13.0 39.0 4.7 0.5 0.5 4.7 10.6
  1. a Time periods and exposure levels by nickel species are given in Table six in ICNCM (1990) [3], which separates exposure levels during 1946–1967 for Roasting day workers, i.e. Roasters (Group 2b) and Smelter building number 1 (Gp.2c), into a very high exposure period (1946–1955) and a high period (1956–1967). JEM values for 1976–84 in ICNCM (1990) [3] were extended to 1985 in this table. b Exposure levels for total nickel and nickel fractions over time periods are taken from Table three and Figure one in Grimsrud et al. (2000) [5]. c Applicable time periods for nickel fractions in old smelter building No. 1 are shown in Table three of Grimsrud et al. (2000) [5] as 1930–1950 and 1951–1977. d References to the nickel electrolysis dept. in Grimsrud et al. (2000) [5] and to the nickel tankhouse dept. (Group 4e) in ICNCM (1990) [3] are assumed equivalent. e Applicable time period for nickel fractions in copper cementation is shown in Table three of Grimsrud et al. (2000) [5] as 1927–1977. NA: Not Applicable (i.e. JEM values for the entire period were either not published or not applicable).