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Table 1 Occupational studies: The risk of fertility disorders and pregnancy complications among hairdressers

From: Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review

Reference Study
design
Country, time Study question Study
population
Exposure assessment Result
Thulstrup 2006
[3]
Review Medline,
1966-2004
Occupational exposures during pregnancy and birth defects Employed women,
26 original studies
Occupation during pregnancy Hairdressers
No clear evidence for causal associations between maternal occupational exposures and specific birth defects
Garlantézec 2009
[15]
Cohort study France,
2002-05
Risk of malformations and exposure to solvents 3,399 pregnant women (55 hairdressers) before 19th gestational week Self-reported exposure (never/occasional/regular, job exposure matrix (JEM) no/medium/high exposure Hairdressers
Self-reported: regular exposure
JEM-assessed: medium exposure
Goulet 1991
[16]
Case-control study Canada,
1982-84
Stillbirth and chemical exposure during pregnancy 227 stillbirths (> 20 weeks of gestation),
227 live births
Women working full-time (> 30 h/week) at the beginning of pregnancy,
occupation, specific exposure to chemicals (light/moderate/high)
Hairdressers
Odds Ratio (OR) 0.1* (#CI 0.0-0.3) P = 0.05
Kuijten 1992
[17]
Case-control study USA,
1980-86
Childhood astrocytoma (< 15 years) and parental occupation 163 cases,
163 controls
Job categories, parental occupational history Maternal occupation - hairdresser
Preconception OR 2.5 (CI 0.4-26.2)
Pregnancy OR 1.5 (CI 0.2-18)
Postnatal OR 3.0 (CI 0.2-157.7)
Cordier 2001
[18]
Case-control study Under IARC coordination in 7 countries,
1976-94
Childhood brain tumours and parental occupations 1,218 cases,
2,223 controls
Occupational history during 5-year period before child's birth Maternal occupation - hairdresser
OR 1.1 (CI 0.7-2.0)
Olshan 1999
[19]
Case-control study Canada/USA, 1992-96 Childhood neuroblastoma (< 19 years) and parental occupation 538 cases,
504 controls
Occupational history, occupational groups Maternal occupation - hairdresser
OR 2.8 (CI 1.2-6.3)
Paternal occupation - hairdresser
OR 3.3 (OR 0.2-45.7)
Bianchi 1997
[12]
Case-control study Italy,
1982-89
Congenital malformations and maternal occupation 1,791 cases,
3,223 controls
Maternal occupation during pregnancy Hairdressers
Orofacial clefts OR 2.2 (99% CI 0.4-10.7);
Limb defects OR 2.2 (99% CI 0.8-6.1);
multiple anomalies OR 1.7 (99% CI 0.7-4)
Lorente 2000
[13]
Case-control study France/United Kingdom/Italy/Netherlands, 1989-92 Orofacial clefts and maternal occupational risk factors 100 cases
(4 hairdressers),
751 controls
(9 hairdressers)
Occupations before and during pregnancy, tasks, products handled, frequency of use Hairdressers/beauticians
Cleft palate only OR 5.1 (CI 1.01-25.9)
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate
OR 1.86 (CI 0.36-9.65)
Nguyen 2007
[20]
Case-control study Norway,
1996-2001
Orofacial clefts and parental occupation 574 cases (without other malformations)
(4 hairdressers),
763 controls
(3 hairdressers)
Job title, industry type, status of work during early pregnancy (first 3 months) Maternal occupation - hairdresser
Cleft lip with or without palate
OR 4.8* (CI 0.99-23)
Cleft palate only OR 2.3* (CI 0.21-25)
Ormond 2009
[21]
Case-control study England,
2000-03
Hypospadias and maternal occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) 471 cases,
490 controls
Job title, main tasks, self-reported exposure,
job exposure matrix (JEM)
Hairdressers
OR 2.59* (CI 0.7-12.3)
Occupational exposure
Hair spray OR 2.39*(CI 1.4-4.17)
Phthalates OR 3.12*(CI 1.04-11.46)
Mutanen 2001
[22]
Register-based study Sweden,
1958-96
Childhood cancer and parental occupation 8,185 cases
< 15 years
(45 hairdressers)
Job title Hairdressers
Kidney cancer
(Father) Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) 10.6 (CI 2.9-27.2)
(Mother) SIR 1.0 (CI 0.1-3.7)
Vrijheid 2003
[14]
Register-based study England, Wales, 1980-96 Hypospadias and maternal occupational exposure to EDCs 3,471 cases
(98 hairdressers),
35,962 controls -all congenital anomaly cases
Job title,
exposure categories unlikely/possible/probable
Maternal occupation - hairdresser
Observed/Expected Ratio (O/E)
0.99 (CI 0.81-1.19)
(1980-89) O/E 0.94 (CI 0.74-1.17)
(1992-96) O/E 1.18 (CI 0.8-1.64)
  1. # The Confidence Interval (CI) is for the 95% level, unless otherwise noted.
  2. * Adjusted for smoking