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Table 2 Hairdresser studies: The risk of fertility disorders and pregnancy complications among hairdressers

From: Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review

Reference Study
design
Country, time Study question Study
population
Exposure assessment Results
Kersemaekers 1995
[2]
Review Medline,
1985-1993
Reproductive disorders due to chemical exposure Hairdressers;
9 studies
Hair washing, hair bleaching, hair dyeing, permanent waving, hair styling, solvents Inconsistent results of studies,
little evidence,
reproductive risks cannot be excluded
Kersemaekers 1997
[25]
Cohort study Netherlands, 1986-88,
1991-93
Reproductive disorders 4,236 hairdressers,
2,932 clothing sales clerks
Work at least 10 hours/week during the first 2 months of pregnancy 1st period:
Spont. abortion OR 1.6 (#CI 1.0-2.4)
Time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months
OR 1.5 (CI 0.8-2.8)
Low birth weight (LBW)
OR 1.5 (CI 0.7-3.1)
2nd period:
Abortion OR 0.9 (0.7-1.1)
Kersemaekers 1997
[26]
Cohort study Netherlands, 1986-88,
1991-93
Neurodevelopment in offspring 4,236 hairdressers,
2,932 clothing sales clerks
Work at least 10 hours/week during the first 2 months of pregnancy 1st period:
1st word RR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.1)
1st sentence RR 4,1 (CI 1.2-13.6)
Seizures during fever RR 2.6 (CI 1.0-6.9)
2nd period:
Decreased risks of seizures,
no delayed child development
Rylander 2002
[27]
Cohort study Sweden,
1973-94
Reproductive outcome 3,706 hairdressers,
3,462 reference population
Working time/week,
treatments/week for permanent waving, hair dyeing, bleaching, shampooing, spraying
Small for gestational age (SGA)
OR 1.4 (CI 1.1-1.7)
Malformation OR 1.3 (CI 1.1-1.6)
LBW OR 1.2 (CI 1.0-1.5)
Preterm birth OR 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.3)
Zhu 2006
[28]
Cohort study Denmark,
1997-2003
Pregnancy outcomes and developmental milestones children 550 hairdressers, 3,216 shop assistants Working time/week,
work postures
SGA OR 1.0*(CI 0.7-1.3)
Preterm birth OR 1,0*(CI 0.7-1.6)
Malformation OR 0.8*(CI 0.6-1.2)
Fetal loss (spont. abortions + stillbirths) OR 0.7*(0.3-1.8)
no differences in child development
Blatter 1993
[23]
Cross-sectional study Netherlands, 1990 Menstrual disorders due to chemical exposure 64 hairdressers,
130 clothing shop assistants
  Irregular cycle OR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.2)
Oligomenorrhoea OR 3.0 (CI 1.1-8.4)
Unusual cycle length OR 3.4 (CI 1.5-7.8)
Long blood loss OR 5.1 (CI 1.7-15.4)
Severe pain OR 2.6 (CI 1.2-5.9)
Gan 2003
[29]
Cross-sectional study China Health effects due to exposure with permanent waving solution 57 hairdressers,
64 schoolteachers
Permanent waving procedure > 1 year Menstrual disorders (menoxenia) Hairdressers 22.81% vs. reference 9.38% (p < 0.05)
Ronda 2009
[30]
Cross-sectional study Spain,
2006
Menstrual disorders and subfertility 310 hairdressers,
310 shop assistants + office workers
No. of years in occupation,
daily working hours previous year
Subfertility
OR 2.17*(CI 0.91-5.17)
Menstrual disorders
OR 1.87*(CI 0.99-3.91)
Ronda 2010
[31]
Cross-sectional study Spain,
2006
Pregnancy outcomes 310 hairdressers,
310 shop assistants + office workers
Job tasks, application of chemical products, ventilation Spontaneous abortion
OR 1.6*(0.9-2.7)
Preterm birth OR 1.0*(0.4-2.9)
LBW OR 0.2*(0.3-2.0)
Axmon 2006
[32]
Cross-sectional study Sweden,
2000
Fertility/
time to pregnancy for wanted pregnancy and miscarriage risk
1,678 hairdressers,
1,578 referents population
Exposure before and during pregnancy, job tasks, ventilation Fertility
Fertility ratio (FR) 0.91 (CI 0.83-0.99)
Spontaneous abortion
OR 1.12 (CI 0.88-1.42)
Baste 2008
[33]
Cross-sectional study Norway,
1997-99
Infertility, spontaneous abortion and smoking habits 136 hairdressers,
593 shop assistants/
6,734 other occupations
Income for at least 100 hours in occupation last year Infertility RR 1.3*(CI 1.08-1.55)
Abortion RR 1.31*(CI 1.07-1.6)
Hairdressers, never smoker:
Infertility RR 2.01 (CI 1.45-2.8)
Abortion RR 2.0 (CI 1.48-2.72)
Gallicchio 2009
[34]
Cross-sectional study USA,
2005-08
Premature ovarian failure (POF) 443 hairdressers,
508 controls
Work history, employment status POF RR 1.9*(CI 0.76-4.72)
Caucasian women
POF RR 3.24*(CI 1.06-9.91)
Rylander 2005
[35]
Register-based study Sweden,
1983-2001
Reproductive outcome 8,384 hairdressers,
reference: all deliveries 1983-2001 for working mothers
Working time during pregnancy (full-time/part-time) SGA OR 1.19*(CI 1.07-1.33)
LBW OR 1.10*(CI 0.99-1.21)
Preterm birth OR 1.05*(CI 0.96-1.14)
Hougaard 2006
[36]
Register-based study Denmark,
1998-2002
Risk of infertility 68 hairdressers, reference: all working women (20-44 years) + shop assistants Economically active in registration Infertility
Relative risk (RR) 1.01 (CI 0.77-1.29) compared to shop assistants,
RR 0.93 (CI 0.72-1.18) compared to all working women
Axmon 2009
[37]
Register-based study Sweden,
1996
Comparison of birth weight and foetal growth 3,137 hairdressers and their sisters (3,952) Graduates of vocational schools for hairdressers Large for gestational age (LGA)
OR 0.60*(CI 0.39-0.92),
LBW OR 0.72*(CI 0.5-1.03),
SGA OR 0.85*(CI 0.54-1.34)
Halliday-Bell 2009
[38]
Register-based study Finland,
1990-2004
Adverse pregnancy outcome 10,622 hairdressers, 2,490 beauticians,
18,594 teachers
Working as a hairdresser Hairdressers compared to teachers
LBW OR 1.44*(CI 1.23-1.69)
Preterm birth OR 1.21*(CI 1.07-1.38)
SGA OR 1.65*(CI 1.38-2.07)
Perinatal death OR 1.62*(CI 1.01-1.60)
  1. # The Confidence Interval (CI) concerns the 95% level, unless otherwise noted.
  2. * Adjusted for smoking