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Table 1 Recommendations for lumbar load assessment procedures

From: Characteristic values of the lumbar load of manual patient handling for the application in workers' compensation procedures

no. activity Recommendation Compressive force in kN
1 Raising a patient from lying to sitting in bed or vice versa 4.1
2 elevating a patient from lying to sitting at the bed's edge or vice versa 5.1
3 moving a patient towards the bed's head (nurse at bed's long side) 7.0
4 moving a patient towards the bed's head (nurse at bed's head) 6.0
5 moving a patient in the bed sideward 5.0
6 lifting a leg of a lying patient or vice versa (nurse at bed's long side) 2.9
7 lifting a leg of a lying patient or vice versa (nurse at bed's foot) 1.8
8 lifting both legs of a lying patient or vice versa (nurse at bed's long side) 3.7
9 inclining the bed's head with the patient lying in the bed 4.4
10 shoving a bedpan or vice versa 4.6
11 placing a patient from sitting at bed's edge in a chair or vice versa 5.9
12 raising a patient from sitting to upright standing position or vice versa 4.9
13 raising a patient from lying on the floor to standing position 4.1
  1. Recommendations for characteristic values of the lumbar load to be applied in occupational-disease statement procedures concerning the Occupational Disease no. 2108 of the German list of occupational diseases.