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Table 3 Overview of individual agents causing irritant-induced OA or occupational COPD

From: Bronchial asthma and COPD due to irritants in the workplace - an evidence-based approach

Agent CAS Strength of evidence (modified RCGP three star grading) Number of studies per agent References
Acids    
", acetic * 3 [108, 157, 158]
64-19-7
", not specified (*) 2 [30, 37]
", dodecanedioic - 1 [159]
693-23-2-1
", various - 1 [35]
", " (hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, nitric, perchloric, sulfuric) - 1 [160]
", hydrochloric (*) 6 [35, 99, 161, 162]
7647-01-0
", hydrofluoric - 1 [163]
7664-39-3
", sulfuric * 3 [99, 109, 164]
7664-93-9
Acrylates    
", not specified - 1 [165]
", alkyl cyanoacrylates (*) 4 [166169]
", cyanoacrylate glue - 1 [170]
", " [loctite] * 4 [44, 169, 171, 172]
53858-53-0
", methacrylates * 1 [134]
", methyl 2-cyanoacrylate - 3 [166, 169, 173]
137-05-3
", methylmethacrylate - 2 [169, 174]
80-62-6
Aluminum salts * 1 [100]
aluminum fluoride: 7724-18-1
aluminum sulfate: 10043-01-3
2-Aminoethanol [2-ethanolamine] - 1 [175]
141-43-5
Amino-ethyl-ethanolamine - 1 [176]
111-41-1
3-Amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (*) 1 [177]
16691-43-3
Ammonia * 6 [41, 178182]
7664-41-7
Ammonium chloride (triple salt) - 1 [183]
12125-02-9
Ammonium thioglycolate - 1 [184]
5421-46-5
Amprolium hydrochloride - 1 [185]
137-88-2
Anhydrides    
", various * 2 [186, 187]
", dioctyl phthalate - 1 [188]
117-81-7
", hexahydrophthalic - 1 [189]
37226-48-5
", himic - 1 [190]
2746-19-2
", maleic - 2 [191, 192]
108-31-6
", methyltetrahydrophthalic - 1 [193]
26590-20-9
", phthalic anhydride *[*] 5 [194198]
85-44-9
", pyromellitic dianhydride - 1 [199]
89-32-7
", tetrachlorophthalic anhydride * 4 [200], [201], [202], [203]
117-08-8
", benzene-1, 2, 4- tricarboxylic acid 1,2-anhydride [trimellitic anhydride] ** 5 [197, 204207]
552-30-7
Aziridine, polyfunctional (*) 2 [208, 209]
64265-57-2
Azobisformamide [azodicarbonamide] * 5 [210214]
123-77-3
Benzalkonium chloride (fumes) - 2 [215, 216]
8001-54-5
1, 2-Benzisothiazoline-3-one (fumes) - 1 [217]
2634-33-5
Bisulfite , SO2 - 1 [37]
SO2: 7446-09-5
Bromine, hydrobromic acid - 1 [218]
Bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211) - 1 [101]
353-59-3
Bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301) - 1 [219]
75-63-8
Cadmium (fumes) * 4 [68, 220222]
7440-43-9
Calcium carbonate [chalk powder] - 1 [110]
Calcium oxide - 1 [35]
1305-78-8
Captafol (chlorinated thiocarboximide fungicide) - 1 [223]
2425-06-1
Carbon black dust * 1 [224]
1333-86-4
Chloramine T (powder dust) (*) 5 [225229]
7080-50-4
Chlorhexidine - 1 [230]
55-56-1
Chlorine ** 11 [35, 165, 231239]
7782-50-5
Chromate (not specified) (*) 9 [240, 241] [98, 242247]
[see also cement]
Cobalt ** 15 [74, 113, 247259]
7440-48-4
3-(Diamino-amino)propylamine 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine] (*) 1 [260]
109-55-7
Diamine, aliphatic + cycloaliphatic (hardener) 2855-13-2 (isophorone diamine) - 1 [261]
Diazonium tetrafluoroborate 14239-22-6 - 2 [262, 263]
Dichlorodiethyl sulfide [mustard gas] +505-60-2 (*) 1 [264]
Dichlorvos (organophosphate) - 2 [265, 266]
62-73-7
Diethanolamine - 1 [267]
111-42-2
2-Diethylaminoethanol [diethyl aminoethanol] (*) 1 [268]
100-37-8
2-Dimethylaminoethanol [dimethyl ethanolamine] - 2 [269, 270]
108-01-0
Diinitrogen tetraoxide [dinitrogentetroxide] (*) 1 [271]
10544-72-6
Ethylenediamine [ethylene diamine] * 6 [168, 184, 272275]
107-15-3
Ethylene oxide - 2 [276, 277]
75-21-8
Formaldehyde (gas, dust) * 9 [278283], [284, 285]
50-00-0
Freon, (freon-22) - 2 [286, 287]
Glutaraldehyde [glutaral] *[*] 9 [74, 83, 288294]
11-30-8
Hexachlorophene - 1 [295]
70-30-4
Hexamethylenetetramine * 3 [184, 296, 297]
100-97-0
Hydrazine - 1 [30]
302-01-2
Iridium salt - 1 [298]
Isocyanates, isocyanurate    
", various (HDI, MDI, TDI) ** 11 [57, 83, 148, 149, 165, 281, 299303]
", Diphenylmethane diisocyanate [MDI] ** 7 [304310]
5873-54-1
", " prepolymers - 1 [311]
", Hexamethylene diisocyanate [HDI]; plus isodurane Diisocyanate (*) 3 [312, 313]
822-06-0
", HDI biuret plus [314]
4035-89-6
", 3-Isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl isocyanate [isophorone diisocyanate, IPDI] - 1 [315]
4098-71-9
", Methyl isocyanate [MIC] * 6 [316321]
624-83-9
", 1,5-Naphthylene diisocyanate [NDI] (*) [46] [322324]
3173-72-6
", Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate * 1 [325]
9016-87-9
", Toluene diisocyanate, TDI 2,4: 584-84-9; ** 12 [35, 125, 165, 326334]
2,6:91-08-7
", Triglycidil isocyanurate - 1 [335]
2451-62-1
", Triphenylmethane triisocyanate - 1 [336]
Isothiazolinone - 1 [337]
55965-84-9
Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride - 1 [338]
139-07-1
Metam sodium [methyldithiocarbamate] - 1 [102]
144-54-7
Methylmercaptan - 1 [165]
74-93-1
Monoethanolamine - 1 [184]
141-43-5
N-methylmorpholine [*] 1 [339]
109-02-4
Nickel sulphate (*) 5 [246, 340343]
→anhydrous 7786-81-4
→hexahydrate 10101-97-0
Ninhydrin 485-47-2 - 1 [335]
Nitrogen chloride [nitrogen trichloride, trichloramine] [*] 2 [150, 344]
10025-85-1
Ozone (gassings) * 1 [345]
10028-15-6
Palladium - 1 [346]
7440-05-3
Paraphenylenediamine (*) 1 [347]
106-50-3
Paraquat * 2 [128, 151]
4685-14-7
Persulfate    
", not specified (*) 2 [348, 349]
", ammonium - 1 [350]
", potassium (7727-21-1) and ammonium peroxydisufate [*] 5 [351]
(7727-54-0)
", alcalic - 1 [352]
", Sodium persulfate - 1 [353]
7775-27-1
", Dipotassium peroxo-peroxodisulfate [potassium persulfate] 7727-21-1 - 1 [354]
", Diammonium peroxodisulfate [ammonium persulfate] * 4 [355357]
7727-54-0
Phenylglycine acid chloride * 1 [358]
39478-47-2
Phosgene - 2 [35, 359]
75-44-5
Piperazine dihydrochloride * 3 [130, 176, 274]
142-64-3
Platinum salts ** 8 [131, 176, 360365]
(7440-06-4)
Polyethylene - 3 [366368]
9002-88-4
Polymethyl-methacrylate [plexiglas powder] - 1 [369]
9011-14-7
Polypropylene, heated to 250 °C [*] 2 [370, 371]
9003-07-0
Polyvinyl chloride (fume) * 8 [53, 372376] [377, 378]
9002-86-2
Potassium dichromate (*) 1 [379]
7778-50-9 ( see also chromium;cement)
Potassium aluminum tetrafluoride (*) 1 [380]
14484-69-6
Rosin core solder, thermal decomposition [colophony] * 6 [74, 83, 381383]
8050-09-7
Sodium azide (powder dust) - 1 [384]
26628-22-8
Sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate [SINOS] 123354-92-7 (*) 3 [385387]
Sodium metabisulfite [metabisulfite sodium] (*) 6 [103, 388392]
7681-57-4
Styrene monomer (*) 3 [132, 393, 394]
100-42-5
Sulfur dioxide *[*] 5 [35, 154, 395397]
7446-09-5
Sulfathiazole - 1 [398]
72-14-0
Terpene (3-carene) - 2 [399, 400]
13466-78-9
Tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (fungicide) - 1 [401]
Tetrahydrothiophene - 1 [402]
110-01-0
Tetramethrin [1-(5-tretrazoly)- 4-guanyl-tetrazene hydrate] 7696-12-0 - 2 [338, 403]
Tributyl tin oxide [carpet fungicide] - 1 [404]
Triethanolamine - 1 [175]
102-71-6
Tungsten carbide - 1 [405]
11130-73-7
Tylosin tartrate - 1 [406]
Uranium hexafluoride - 2 [30, 407]
7783-81-5
Urea (fume) - 1 [104]
57-13-6
Urea formaldehyde foam - 1 [408]
64869-57-4/
Phenol-formaldehyde resin
9003-35-4
Vanadium 7440-62-2 + divanadium pentoxide * 5 [84, 409412]
1314-62-1
Zinc (fume) - 3 [413415]
7440-66-6
Zinc chloride (fume) - 1 [183]
7646-85-7
Mixed agent Evidence level Number of studies per agent  
Acid fluxes - 1 [74]
Acrylic acid - 1 [166]
Airbag content - 1 [416]
Bleaching agent (fumes) - 1 [99]
Cement ** 14 [111, 133, 235, 417427]
65997-15-1
Chlorofluorocarbons (*) 2 [428, 429]
(degradation products)
Cleaning agents (not specified) *[*] 9 [15, 37, 41, 112, 135, 430433]
", detergents - 2 [434, 435]
Coffee, green * 5 [436440]
Cotton (dust, raw) *[*] (12) [48, 114116, 423, 441447]
CNT 750
Cutting oil - 2 [37, 448]
Diesel exhaust * 5 [10, 45, 46, 105, 106]
ECG ink - 2 [449, 450]
Endotoxin (see also cotton dust, swine confinement, poultry confinement, house dust) * 2 [41, 451]
Environmental tobacco smoke ** 10 [117, 118, 138143, 452, 453]
Floor sealant (aromatic hydrocarbons) - 1 [30]
Fumigating agent - 1 [30]
Furan-based binder - 1 [454]
Grain ** 9 [48, 122124, 455459]
", rice [*] 1 [460]
Hairdressing chemicals (*) 1 [281]
Lubricants (not specified) (*) 2 [10, 57]
Metal coat remover (coating removing chemical) - 1 [30]
Metal oxide (fume) - 1 [461]
Metal working fluids [MWF] - 1 [462]
Oil (spill) * 1 [126]
Paint (fumes) * 4 [35, 127, 463, 464]
Paper dust A111 (*) 1 [48]
Perfume agents (research lab) - 1 [37, 465]
Pesticides (not specified) *[*] 5 [129, 152, 266, 466, 467]
Polyamines, aliphatic [*] 1 [468]
Polyester (*) 2 [469, 470]
Potroom aluminum smelting *[*] 10 [52, 247, 471478]
Powder paints (*) 1 [479]
Pyrazolone (see reactive dye) - 1 [480]
Reactive dyes * 5 [481485]
Refractory ceramic fibers [RCF] * 2 [486, 487]
Smoke (fires, pyrolysis products) *[*] 5 [30, 41, 488490]
", (oil fire and dust storm) * 1 [491]
", (biomass, indoor) (*) 1 [492]
Soldering flux (fumes) * 4 [183, 493495]
Solvents (not specified) * 4 [10, 48, 496, 497]
Spray paint - 1 [30]
Tall oil - 1 [498]
Tear gas - 4 [499502]
Welding fumes ** 18 [41, 48, 57, 83, 247, 281, 464, 503513]
Work-site or profession Evidence level Number of studies per work-site or profession  
Ceramic production *[*] 2 [514, 515]
Cleaners    
Construction work (dust, agent not specified) ** 5 [8, 107, 136, 516, 517]
Farming    
", (various) *[*] 9 [119, 120, 144146, 518521]
", animals (pig, beef/veal, dairy, poultry) ** 3 [522524]
Foundry *[*] 4 [121, 147, 525, 526]
[see also isocyanates (MDI)]
Health care workers *[*] 4 [23, 527529]
Metallurgical industry workers * 1 [530]
Poultry confinement *(*) 4 [153, 531533]
Poultry confinement, slaughtery house * 3 [534536]
Swine confinement ** 8 [39, 40, 141, 155, 537540]
World Trade Center disaster 2001 ** 8 [133, 156, 541546]
  1. [ ] down-grading due to lower quality of clinical investigations relative to the scale of the scientific level of the study.
  2. (*) up-grading due to at least 5 cases without contradictory findings.