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Table 1 Demographics of dairy farmers and employed dairy farm workers

From: Work-related musculoskeletal discomfort of dairy farmers and employed workers

Demographics Dairy Farmers Employed Dairy Farm Workers
  Male and female Male Female Male and female Male Female
Employment [a] 66 (64)    37 (36)   
Gender [a]   41 (62) 25 (38)   19 (51) 18 (49)
Age (years) [b] 47 (10)* 47 (10)* 46 (10) 34 (8) 35 (9) 33 (8)
Height (cm) [b] 175 (9) 179 (6) 167 (7) 178 (10) 186 (6) 170 (7)
Weight (kg) [b] 79 (14) 85 (12) 69 (12) 80 (14) 88 (11) 71 (10)
Smoking (yes) [a] 3 (5) 1 (2) 2 (8) 6 (16) [c1] 5 (26) [d2] 1 (6)
Taking physical exercise regularly (at least 2 hours per week) (yes) [a] 18 (27) 7 (17) 11 (44) [f1] 15 (41) 4 (21) 11 (61) [f1]
Having chronic health problem (e.g. diabetes, allergy, asthma), (yes) [a] 3 (5) 1 (2) 2 (8) 8 (22) [c2] 2 (11) 6 (33) [e1]
History of work-related injury during last 12 months (yes) [a] 6 (9) 5 (12) 1 (4) 5 (14) 1 (5) 4 (22)
Time per week spent working with cows (h) [b] 39 (15)* 40 (17) 36 (12) 34 (12) 35 (12) 34 (12)
Time per week spent milking (h) [b] 19 (12) 19 (12) 20 (11) 17 (8) 15 (8) 19 (8)
Work experience with dairy cattle (years) [b] 22 (11) 25 (12) 19 (9) 12 (8) 14 (9) 10 (7)
Dairy herd size [b] 82 (36–153) 83 (44–153) 80 (36–148) 119 (56–278) 115 (65–278) 123 (56–278)
  1. Descriptive values [number (n), per cent (%), mean and standard deviation (SD)] are listed according to employment and gender.
  2. [a] Number (percentage).
  3. [b] Mean (SD or min; max).
  4. [c] Denotes significant difference between farmers and workers.
  5. [d] Denotes significant difference between males.
  6. [e] Denotes significant difference between females.
  7. [f] Denotes significant difference between males and females within the employment groups (farmers and workers).
  8. 1) Denotes significance level p < 0.05; 2) denotes significance level p < 0.01.
  9. * One missing value.