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Table 3 Cognitive functioning of the study sample according to socio-demographic and work-related characteristics

From: Association between mental demands at work and cognitive functioning in the general population – results of the health study of the Leipzig research center for civilization diseases (LIFE)

    n (%) Trail making test - B mean (SD) Verbal fluency mean (SD)
Female§ 1500 (51.2) 87.98 (45.64)*** 23.85 (6.12)**
Male 1427 (48.8) 97.97 (52.70) 23.20 (6.32)
Age (70–79 years)# 680 (23.2) 116.79 (57.00)*** 22.19 (5.86)***
Age (60–69 years) 867 (29.6) 99.81 (49.00) 22.92 (5.95)
Age (50–59 years) 776 (26.5) 82.96 (40.40) 23.74 (6.30)
Age (40–49 years) 604 (20.6) 68.58 (35.09) 25.64 (6.31)
Education (high)# 957 (32.9) 82.33 (38.06)*** 25.24 (6.25)***
Education (middle) 836 (28.7) 93.40 (46.71) 23.61 (5.92)
Education (low) 1119 (38.2) 101.66 (57.87) 22.04 (6.06)
Not working# 1487 (51.1) 109.22 (55.20)*** 22.41 (5.95)***
Working <15h/week 54 (1.8) 95.20 (53.67) 23.84 (6.00)
Working 15-34h/week 275 (9.4) 78.67 (36.64) 25.44 (6.83)
Working 35 + h/week 1096 (37.6) 74.30 (34.00) 24.61 (6.17)
Demands (high)# 379 (13.9) 87.58 (38.85)*** 24.31 (6.34)***
Demands (medium) 1997 (84.3) 91.59 (48.85) 23.70 (6.13)
Demands (low) 344 (12.6) 105.52 (59.78) 21.69 (6.06)
Self-regulation (high)# 199 (7.3) 82.09 (41.54)*** 26.04 (6.09)***
Self-regulation (medium) 2295 (84.3) 92.18 (48.63) 23.48 (6.17)
Self-regulation (low) 230 (8.4) 108.08 (58.75) 21.91 (5.99)
Stroke (no)§ 2819 (97.7) 92.10 (48.18)*** 23.61 (6.19)***
Stroke (yes) 66 (2.3) 130.27 (81.01) 21.14 (7.10)
Blood lipids (normal)§ 1665 (63.0) 89.88 (48.23)*** 23.98 (6.23)***
Blood lipids (elevated) 976 (37.0) 99.26 (51.52) 22.99 (6.17)
Liver disease (no)§ 2368 (88.7) 93.09 (50.15)** 23.64 (6.26)
Liver disease (yes) 301 (11.3) 98.32 (49.61) 23.09 (5.96)
Heart attack (no)§ 2792 (69.9) 92.36 (49.48)*** 23.62 (6.20)*
Heart attack (yes) 88 (3.1) 109.82 (45.44) 21.89 (6.39)
Blood pressure (normal)§ 1391 (50.9) 85.61 (45.16)*** 24.16 (6.29)***
Blood pressure (high) 1340 (49.1) 100.98 (52.55) 22.96 (6.09)
Diabetes (no)§ 2534 (88.0) 90.87 (48.37)*** 23.75 (6.23)***
Diabetes (yes) 346 (12.0) 108.01 (54.74) 22.13 (5.91)
  1. Notes: SD standard deviation, § - Mann–Whitney-U-Test, # - Kruskal-Wallis-Test, level of significance: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.