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Table 2 Number of chemical and biological hazards to which workers may be exposed in each major ISCO occupational group

From: Chemical and biological work-related risks across occupations in Europe: a review

Hazard type ISCO 0 ISCO 2 ISCO 3 ISCO 4 ISCO 5 ISCO 6 ISCO 7 ISCO 8 ISCO 9 Industrial uses or work settings Some implied costs
Carcinogens NA 7 23 NA 4 5 6 37 8 Manufacture of rubber, plastics, dyes, steel, inks, textiles, paper and batteries, semiconductors, glass, and cement; in construction activities such as building demolition, roofing, painting, and stonework; in such processes or work tasks involving incomplete combustion of organic material, and mining activities involving nickel, lignite and haematite mining Annual societal costs of occupational cancer: 126000 EUR per case [34]
Skin sensitisers 7 16 106 1 21 21 10 106 11 In the rubber industry as antioxidants, accelerators, and vulcanization agents, in the production of dyes, epoxy resins, textiles, paints, cosmetics, foods; in the pharmaceutical industry, and the production of pesticides Annual societal costs of hand eczema: 8798 EUR per case [43]
Airway sensitisers NA 2 14 NA NA 8 2 15 1 Production of plastics, paper, resins, textiles, cosmetics, dyes, and in the metallurgic, food and agricultural industry Annual societal costs of occupational asthma: 2900 EUR per case [69]
Mutagenic (category 2) NA NA 5 NA NA 1 NA 5 1 Production of plastics, textile fibres; as additives and intermediates Societal costs associated with heritable diseases
Toxic for fertility 1 1 10 NA 1 2 3 11 3 Production of plastics, inks, textiles, pigments, adhesives; as intermediates and solvents Societal costs of reduced fertility
Toxic for development 1 1 31 NA 3 9 10 32 17 Production of adhesives, textiles, dyes, insecticides, lubricants, varnishes, cutting fluids, cements, cellulose; in the rubber and plastics industry; as solvents Societal costs of congenital malformations
Biological 1 23 21 NA 18 20 10 4 17 Healthcare, biotechnology, agriculture, forestry, outdoor tasks, military Societal costs of several infectious diseases
Total hazards 10 50 210 1 47 66 41 210 58 693 exposures to chemical and biological hazards  
  1. NA: Not available