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Table 2 Overview of typical diesel fuel types

From: Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

Diesel fuel type Typical methods Typical properties Influence on soot formation
Mineral-oil-based diesel fuel Petroleum distillation Sulfur content Soot formation proportional to sulfur content
Mixture of approx. 200 hydrocarbons (alkanes, olefins, cycloalkans, aromatics) Aromatics content
Boiling curve
Low H/C ratio Soot formation increases in the following sequence: Alkanes → Cycloalkanes → Olefines → Aromatics
Bio-fuel 1st generation Transesterification of vegetable oils No sulfur content
No aromatics
O2 content causes low soot formation
FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) ~10% oxygen content Increased SOF portion in the particles
High boiling point
Bio-fuel 2nd generation & gas to liquid Fischer-Tropsch process No or very low sulfur and aromatics content Low particle formation due to low sulfur and aromatics content and high H/C ratio
-Biomass to liquid (BtL)
-Gas to liquid (GtL) No oxygen content
Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) High H/C ratio
High cetane number
   Low spec. density