Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of studies

From: Tuberculin skin test and Quantiferon test agreement and influencing factors in tuberculosis screening of healthcare workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author Country n Gender (F/M) Sample age a Working seniority a Type of study TB incidence 2012 b Screening year TB real incidence c PPD dose Type of PPD d BCG vaccination(%)
Zwerling et al., 2012 [45] Canada 388 288/100 34,4 (26,9-44,7) y M(range) 5 (2–12) y M(range) Cross-sectional 4,5 2007-2011 4,8 5 U PPD-S 36
Khoury et al., 2011 [40] Minnesota, USA 611 Missing data / Start of work 100% Cross-sectional 3,9 2005-2006 5,3 5 U PPD-S (as in national guidelines) 82
Fox et al., 2009 [30] Israel 100 69/31 31 ± 10 y m + SD TST-: 3,7 ± 6,1 y TST+: 8,7 ± 10,1 y QFT-: 4,6 ± 7,3 y QFT+: 4,2 ± 5,8 y m + SD Prospective 5,8 2007 6,1 5 U PPD-S 37
Vinton et al., 2009 [29] Australia 481 431/50 42 (20–66) y M(range) / Cross-sectional 6 2008 6,1 10 U PPD-S 78
Larcher et al., 2012 [46] Italy 549 397/152 38,3 (19–64) y m(range) / Cross-sectional 2,8 2006-2007 6,7 5 U PPD-S (as in national guidelines) 38
Nienhaus et al., 2008e [25] Germany 261 212/49 40 ± 10,4 y m ± SD / Cross-sectional 4,5 2006 6,8 2 U PPD-RT23 38
Soborg et al., 2007e [23] Denmark 139 115/24 <30 y 17% 30–39 y 30% 40–49 y 33% ≥ 50 y 20% / Cross-sectional 6,5 2007 6,9 2 U PPD-RT23 76
Girardi et al., 2009 [31] Italy 115 67/48 ≤41 y 51% >41 y 49% / Cross-sectional 2,8 2004-2005 7,5 5 U PPD-S 37
Freeman et al., 2012e [47] New Zealand 325 270/55 18-30 y 49,2% 31–50 y 41,8% 51–60 y 8,9% / Cross-sectional 7,6 2007-2008 8,5 5 U PPD-S (as in national guidelines) 67
Tripodi et al., 2009 [32] France 148 109/39 20-29 y 28,4% 30–39 y 19.6% 40–49 y 27,7% 50–60 y 24,3% ≤10 y 52,7% > 10 y 47,3% Cross-sectional 4,3 2006-2007 9,2 2U PPD-S (Tubertest) 100
Alvarez-Leon et al., 2009 [33] Spain 134 101/33 33,4 ± 9,4 y m ± SD 10,8 ± 8,2 y m ± SD Cross-sectional 15 2007 18 2 U PPD-RT23 35
Casas et al., 2009 [34] Spain 147 113/34 43,3 (22–63) y M(range) 18,4 (1–43) y m(range) Cross-sectional 15 2004-2005 19 2 U PPD-RT23 16
Talebi-Taher et al., 2011 [41] Iran 200 127/73 34,36 ± 8,26 y m + SD 1-10 y 69,5% 11–20 y 23% 21–30 y 7,5% Cross-sectional 21 2009-2010 19,5 5 U PPD SACHIN (Surat) India 100
Hotta et al., 2007e [24] Japan 207 132/75 20 (18–42) y M(range) / Cross-sectional 19 2006 24 3 U PPD (equivalent to PPD-S) 93
Topic et al., 2009 [35] Croatia 54 51/3 44 (21–63) y m(range) / Cross-sectional 17 2007 25 2 U PPD-RT23 100
Ozdemir et al., 2010e [38] Turkey 76 33/43 30,4 ± 5,4 y m + SD 3,9 ± 4,7 y m ± SD Cross-sectional 24 2005 31 5 U PPD-S 91
Torres Costa et al., 2011 [42] Portugal 2884 2068/816 <25 y 10,4% 25–29 y 28,5% 30–39 y 27,4% 40–49 y 18,5% ≥50 y 15,2% start of work 13,9% <1 y 4,9% 1–5 y 27,3% >5-10 y 16,1% 10–20 y 19,9% ≥20 y 18% Cohort 24 2007 33 2 U PPD-RT23 100
Rafiza et al., 2011 [43] Malaysia 953 839/114 <24 y 30,7% 25–29 y 35,2% 30–34 y 15,6% > 35 y 18,5% <1 y 14% 1–5 y 47% 6–10 y 17,5% ≥ 11 y 21,5% Cross-sectional 81 2008-2009 83 2 U PPD-RT23 100
Choi et al., 2008 [26] South Korea 80 75/5 28 (23–45) y M(range) 26 (12–240) m M(range) Cross-sectional 100 2006 90 2 U PPD-RT23 100
Lee et al., 2009 [36] South Korea 196 196/0 23,4 ± 1,4 y m + SD / Prospective 100 2007 92 2 U PPD-RT23 93
Lee et al., 2010 [39] South Korea 82 82/0 28 (22–53) y M(range) 51,5 (0,25-276) m M(range) Cross-sectional 100 2009-2010 97 2 U PPD-RT23 100
Moon et al., 2011 [44] South Korea 173 102/71 32 (22–67) y M(range) 7 (0,2-42) y M(range) Cross-sectional 100 2010 98 2 U PPD-RT23 100
Jung et al., 2012 [48] South Korea 153 48/105 21.9 ± 0.9 y m + SD / Cross-sectional 108 2010-2012 102 2 U PPD-RT23 86
Jo et al., 2013 [50] South Korea 493 383/110 30,6 ± 6,0 y m + SD <1 y 8,3% 1–5 y 49,7% 6–10 y 23,1% 11–15 y 13,8% ≥ 15 y 5,1% Cross-sectional 100 2012 108 2 U PPD-RT23 81
Whitaker et al., 2013 [51] Georgia 319 259/60 18-29 y 20% 30–39 y 26% 40–49 y 31% ≥ 50 y 23% 0-4 y 22% 5–14 y 26% 15–24 y 23% ≥ 25 y 29% Prospective 125 2009-2011 128 5 U PPD-S 90
Mirtskhulava et al., 2008 [27] Georgia 265 229/36 42 (18–74) y m(range) 8 (1–42) y M (range) Cross-sectional 125 2006 160 5 U PPD-S 78
Lien et al., 2009 [37] Vietnam 265 197/68 40 (20–58) y M(range) <2 y 11% ≥2 < 5 y 17,7% ≥5 < 10 y 16,6% ≥10 y 54,7% Cross-sectional 151 2007 202 5 U PPD (Pasteur Institute, Vietnam) 33
Pai et al., 2008 [28] India 719 446/273 22 y M / Cohort 249 2004 212 1 U PPD-RT23 71
He et al., 2012 [49] Mongolia 917 659/258 18-29 y 22% 30–39 y 23% 40–49 y 35% ≥ 50 y 20% 10 (<1-50) y M(range) Cross-sectional 223 2010 224 5 U missing data 34
  1. aData shown through mean (m) + standard deviation (SD) or through mean (m) and range or through Median (M) and range or through percentage (%); / = missing data. Data are shown in months (m) or years (y).
  2. bAccording to WHO data 2012, rates for 100.000 population.
  3. cAccording to WHO data for each screening year, rates for 100.000 population.
  4. dAccording to data reported in each study or cited national guidelines.
  5. eStudies not included for the meta-analysis.