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Table 2 Collaborations between Arab countries and foreign countries in solid waste publications

From: The Arab world’s contribution to solid waste literature: a bibliometric analysis

Collaborating countriesa No. of documents (%)
Arab–Europe 86 (22.5)b
 France 27 (7.1)
 Italy 18 (4.7)
 England 17 (4.5)
 Spain 11 (2.9)
 Belgium 8 (2.1)
 Germany 3 (0.8)
 Austria 1 (0.3)
 Denmark 1 (0.3)
 Netherlands 1 (0.3)
 North Ireland 1 (0.3)
 Romania 1 (0.3)
 Wales 1 (0.3)
Arab–Americas 36 (9.4)b
 USA 26 (6.8)
 Canada 10 (2.6)
Arab–Other Middle East, Africa 4 (1.1)b
 Iran 1 (0.3)
 Israel 1 (0.3)
 Benin 1 (0.3)
 Turkey 1 (0.3)
Arab–Southeast Asia 10 (2.6)b
 Malaysia 10 (2.6)
Arab–Asia-Pacific 10 (2.6)b
 India 3 (0.8)
 Japan 3 (0.8)
 Peoples Republic of China 2 (0.5)
 South Korea 2 (0.5)
 Australia 1 (0.3)
 Pakistan 1 (0.3)
Arab–Arab 15 (3.9)
  1. aThe study identified 139 (36.4 %) documents with 25 countries in Arab–foreign country collaborations
  2. bTotal exceeds 36.4 % as data are overlapping due to multi-country collaboration