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Table 4 Potential predictive factors for Return to Work: Healthcare Workers versus Non-Healthcare Workers

From: Chronic low back pain among French healthcare workers and prognostic factors of return to work (RTW): a non-randomized controlled trial

Predictive factors for RTW « Healthcare Worker » group   « Non-Healthare Worker » group
RTW = No RTW = Yes Total N = 3 N = 52 N = 55 p-value RTW = No RTW = Yes Total p-value N = 24 N = 40 N = 64
Sociodemographic factors
 Age Mean (SD) 43.67 (6.51) 40.06 (10.37) 40.25 (10.19) 0.5927 41.88(9.02) 39.78(8.48) 40.56(8.68) 0.3452
 Sex Female 3 (100.0 %) 45 (86.54 %) 48 (87.27 %) 1.0000 7 (29.17 %) 9 (22.50 %) 16 (25.00 %) 0.5510
  Male 0 (0.00 %) 7 (13.46 %) 7 (12.73 %)   17 (70.83 %) 31 (77.50 %) 48 (75.00 %)  
 Conjugal relationship Yes 1 (33.33 %) 23 (46.00 %) 24 (45.28 %) 1.0000 10 (43.48 %) 17 (42.50 %) 27 (42.86 %) 0.9398
No 2 (66.67 %) 27 (54.00 %) 29 (54.72 %)   13 (56.52 %) 23 (57.50 %) 36 (57.14 %)  
Pain level
 Duration of pain (months) Min-Max [12.00,’72.00] [2.00,384.00] [2.00,384.00] 0.5547 [5.00,336.00] [5.00,324.00] [5.00,336.00] 0.2882
Mean (SD) 35.33 (32.15) 83.38(90.69) 80.76(89.04)   107.50(89.31) 87.25(87.69) 94.84(88.15)  
  Median 22.00 36.00 36.00   102.00 60.00 66.00  
 VAS Visual Analogue Scale TO Min-Max [2.00,3.00] [0.00,9.00] [0.00,9.00] 0.7343 [0.50,8.00] [0.00,8.00] [0.00,8.00] 0.9824
Mean (SD) 2.50 (0.71) 3.14 (2.26) 3.11 (2.22)   4.51 (2.32) 4.48 (1.99) 4.49 (2.09)  
  Median value 2.50 3.00 3.00   4.55 5.00 5.00  
 Repetitive Lumbago history Yes 3 (100.0 %) 30 (57.69 %) 33 (60.00 %) 0.2667 15 (62.50 %) 23 (57.50 %) 38 (59.38 %) 0.6934
No 0 (0.00 %) 22 (42.31 %) 22 (40.00 %)   9 (37.50 %) 17 (42.50 %) 26 (40.63 %)  
 Recurrent Lumbosciatica Yes 2 (66.67 %) 27 (51.92 %) 29 (52.73 %) 1.0000 11 (45.83 %) 15 (37.50 %) 26 (40.63 %) 0.5111
  No 1 (33.33 %) 25 (48.08 %) 26 (47.27 %)   13 (54.17 %) 25 (62.50 %) 38 (59.38 %)  
 Comorbidity (0 = none; 1 = cardiovascular, 0 1 (33.33 %) 33 (66.00 %) 34 (64.15 %) 0.3853 8 (34.78 %) 19 (48.72 %) 27 (43.55 %) 0.5871
1 2 (66.67 %) 13 (26.00 %) 15 (28.30 %)   9 (39.13 %) 13 (33.33 %) 22 (35.48 %)  
 others…;2 = psychiatric) 2 0 (0.00 %) 4 (8.00 %) 4 (7.55 %)   6 (26.09 %) 7 (17.95 %) 13 (20.97 %)  
 Tobacco (packs.years) Min-Max Mean (SD) [0.00,0.00] [0.00,15.00] [0.00,15.00] 0.5277 [0.00,45.00] [0.00,30.00] [0.00,45.00] 0.7779
0.00 (0) 1.64 1.57   6.53 5.03 5.57  
Clinical examination data
 Weight (Kg) Min-Max Mean (SD) [62.00,70.00] [42.00,90.00] [42.00,90.00] 0.5799 [43.00,118.00] [43.00,117.00] [43.00,118.00] 0.7507
  66.17 (4.01) 64.55 64.64   73.15 73.90 73.62  
 Height (cm) Min-Max Mean (SD) [160.00,160.00] [150.00,187.00] [150.00,187.00] 0.1520 [153.00,190.00] [150.00,190.00] [150.00,190.00] 0.4942
  160.00 (0) 166.58 (7.60) 166.33 (7.56)   171.46 (9.25) 172.85 (9.90) 172.32 (9.61)  
 BMI Mean 25.78 (2.21) 23.25 (4.40) 23.35 (4.35) 0.2491 24.89 (6.07) 24.53 (3.87) 24.67 (4.78) 0.7247
 Fingertip-floor distance (cm) Min-Max [10.00,37.00] [−5.00,90.00] [−5.00,90.00] 0.6308 [0.00,57.00] [0.00,45.00] [0.00,57.00] 0.0289
Mean (SD) 19.67 (15.04) 16.47 (15.96) 16.65 (15.79)   27.57 (15.79) 17.76 (11.76) 21.34 (14.07)  
  Median 12.00 16.50 16.00   25.00 19.00 22.00  
  value         
 Schober index (cm) Min-Max [2.00,4.00] [1.00,7.00] [1.00,7.00]   [0.00,5.00] [1.50,5.00] [0.00,5.00] 0.5258
Mean (SD) 3.00 (1.00) 3.23 (1.16) 3.22 (1.14)   2.93 (1.11) 3.22 (0.94) 3.10 (1.01)  
  Median value 3.00 3.00 3.00   3.00 3.00 3.00  
Socio-occupational factors
 Absenteeism Min-Max [0.00,365.00] [0.00,570.00] [0.00,570.00] 0.7976 [0.00,720.00] [0.00,540.00] [0.00,720.00] 0.1189
 Before inclusion (days) Mean (SD) 142 (196) 91 (120) 94 (123)   204 (178) 134 (142) 161 (158)  
  Median value 60.00 47.00 53.50   140.00 83.50 110.00  
 Job Satisfaction Yes 1 (50.00 %) 36 (78.26 %) 37 (77.08 %) 0.4096 11 (61.11 %) 30 (83.33 %) 41 (75.93 %) 0.0961
  NO 1 (50.00 %) 10 (21.74 %) 11 (22.92 %)   7 (38.89 %) 6 (16.67 %) 13 (24.07 %)  
Psychosocial factors and impact of pain
 FABQ activity Min-Max [14.00,’24.00] [0.00,42.00] [0.00,42.00] 0.2288 [3.00,24.00] [0.00,24.00] [0.00,24.00] 0.3785
  Mean (SD) 18.67 5.03) 14.34 (8.56) 14.68 (8.37)   16.17 (6.37) 14.83 (6.22) 15.22 (6.21)  
  Median value 18.00 13.00 13.50   18.00 15.00 16.00  
 FABQ work Min-Max [30.00,40.00] [0.00,42.00] [0.00,42.00] 0.1124 [14.00,42.00] [2.00,42.00] [2.00,42.00] 0.8801
  Mean (SD) 34.33 (5.13) 23.31 (12.36) 24.18 (12.28)   29.45 (10.28) 29.17 (11.98) 29.25 (11.41)  
  Median value 33.00 23.00 25.50   32.00 33.00 33.00  
 QUEBEC scale Min-Max [34.00,71.00] [5.00,72.00] [5.00,72.00] 0.2717 [16.00,80.00] [3.00,65.00] [3.00,80.00] 0.0855
  Mean (SD) 46.67 (21.08) 32.58 (21.35) 33.75 (21.40)   46.7 (17.12) 35.28 (17.16) 38.63(17.74)  
  Median value 35.00 28.00 33.50   48.50 33.00 38.00  
 HAD scale anxiety Min-Max [4.00,15.00] [1.00,19.00] [1.00,19.00] 0.2726 [3.00,18.00] [3.00,17.00] [3.00,18.00] 0.7932
Mean (SD) 11.00 (6.08) 7.86 (4.31) 8.11 (4.45)   10.08 (4.48) 10.25 (4.05) 10.20 (4.13)  
  Median value 14.00 8.00 8.00   10.00 10.00 10.00  
 HAD scale Depression Min-Max [5.00,10.00] [0.00,14.00] [0.00,14.00] 0.2182 [1.00,13.00] [1.00,18.00] [1.00,18.00] 0.6710
Mean (SD) 8.00(2.65) 5.54(4.00) 5.74 (3.94)   7.62 (4.41) 7.19 (4.08) 7.31 (4.13)  
  Median value 9.00 4.00 5.00   9.00 7.00 7.00  
 DALLAS Anxiety/ Depression Min-Max [50.00,80.00] [0.00,85.00] [0.00,85.00] 0.0785 [0.00,100.00] [0.00,90.00] [0.00,100.00] 0.1862
Mean (SD) 60.00 (17.32) 31.28 (26.18) 33.44 (26.59)   56.54 (30.03) 45.00 (27.11) 48.33 (28.14)  
  Median value 50.00 25.00 30.00   65.00 48.75 55.00  
 DALLAS Work and leisure Min-Max [35.00,85.00] [2.50,90.00] [2.50,90.00] 0.6099 [40.00,95.00] [5.00,90.00] [5.00,95.00] 0.1294
Mean (SD) 61.67 (25.17) 51.88 (26.72) 52.61 (26.43)   69.62 (18.22) 57.98 (21.82) 61.34 (21.32)  
  Median value 65.00 57.50 60.00   70.00 60.00 65.00  
 DALLAS Min-Max [42.00,90.00] [0.00,81.00] [0.00,90.00] 0.3219 [45.00,87.00] [24.00,93.00] [24.00,93.00] 0.3713
 Daily activities Mean (SD) 66.00 (24.00) 49.86 (21.61) 51.08 (21.89)   66.58 (13.58) 61.64 (18.38) 63.07 (17.13)  
  Median value 66.00 54.00 55.50   69.00 64.50 66.00  
 DALLAS Min-Max [35.00,45.00] [0.00,75.00] [0.00,75.00] 0.1345 [10.00,85.00] [0.00,90.00] [0.00,90.00] 0.5172
 Sociability Mean (SD) 40.00 (5.00) 22.70 (20.80) 24.00 (20.54)   45.96 (30.37) 36.64 (24.86) 39.33 (26.56)  
  Median value 40.00 20.00 20.00   50.00 35.00 35.00  
Intervention factors
Ergonomic and OP intervention Yes 0 (0.00 %) 24 (47.06 %) 24 (45.28 %) 0.4949 12 (54.55 %) 26 (70.27 %) 38 (64.41 %) 0.2225
No 2 (100.0 %) 27 (52.94 %) 29 (54.72 %)   10 (45.45 %) 11 (29.73 %) 21 (35.59 %)  
Physiotherapy 0 = none 1 = classic 0 1 (33.33 %) 1 (2.04 %) 2 (3.85 %) 0.0177 2 (8.70 %) 2 (5.56 %) 4 (6.78 %) 0.7026
1 2 (66.67 %) 17 (34.69 %) 19 (36.54 %)   13 (56.52 %) 18 (50.00 %) 31 (52.54 %)  
2 = trained physiotherapist 2 0 (0.00 %) 31 (63.27 %) 31 (59.62 %)   8 (34.78 %) 16 (44.44 %) 24 (40.68 %)  
Physiotherapy Yes 1 (33.33 %) 1 (2.00 %) 2 (3.77 %) 0.1110 2 (8.33 %) 2 (5.41 %) 4 (6.56 %) 0.6427
  No 2 (66.67 %) 49 (98.00 %) 51 (96.23 %)   22 (91.67 %) 35 (94.59 %) 57 (93.44 %)  
  Min-Max [0.00,’20.00] [0.00,100.00] [0.00,100.00] 0.5231 [0.00,300.00] [0.00,60.00] [0.00,300.00] 0.2150
Physiotherapy (number of training sessions) Mean (SD) 13.33 (11.55) 20.70 (13.53) 20.28 (13.44)   41.13 (62.31) 20.32 (12.30) 28.51 (41.04)