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Table 3 Self-reported alcohol and drug use and results from testing of oral fluid samples

From: Use of alcohol and drugs by employees in selected business areas in Norway: a study using oral fluid testing and questionnaires

  Healthcare Finance Manufacturing Transportation and storage Restaurants and bars Other Men Women Total
Oral fluid samples, % (n) 98.8 (906) 98.2 (449) 99.2 (252) 99.6 (232) 99.2 (130) 65.6 (292) unk.a (928) unk.a (1226) 92.8 (2261)
Questionnaires, % (n) 100.0 (917) 100.0 (457) 100.0 (254) 97.0 (226) 100.0 (131) 100.0 (445) unk.a (1011) unk.a (1317) 99.7 (2430)
Psychoactive medication, % (n)          
 A: Detected in oral fluid 4.6 (42) 1.1 (5) 2.0 (5) 3.0 (7) 2.3 (3) 1.7 (5) 2.3 (21) 3.7 (45) 3.0 (67)
 B: Self-reported use last 48 h 4.5 (41) 3.7 (17) 3.5 (9) 5.3 (12) 3.8 (5) 3.8 (17) 4.3 (43) 3.9 (52) 4.2 (101)
 Either A or B 6.0 (55) 4.2 (19) 4.7 (12) 7.3 (17) 5.3 (7) 3.8 (17) 5.1 (52) 5.2 (69) 5.2 (127)
 Self-reported non-therapeutic use last 12 months 0.7 (6) 0.7 (3) 1.2 (3) nc 1.5 (2) nc nc nc nc
Illicit drugs, % (n)          
 A: Detected in oral fluid 0.0 (0) 0.4 (2) 0.8 (2) 3.0 (7) 6.9 (9) 0.0 (0) 1.7 (16) 0.3 (4) 0.9 (20)
 B: Self-reported last 48 h 0.0 (0) 1.1 (5) 0.0 (0) 0.9 (2) 11.5 (15) 0.0 (0) 1.3 (13) 0.7 (9) 0.9 (22)
 Either A or B 0.0 (0) 1.3 (6) 0.8 (2) 3.9 (9) 12.2 (16) 0.0 (0) 2.3 (23) 0.8 (10) 1.4 (33)
 Self-reported use last 12 m 1.9 (17) 3.7 (17) 1.6 (4) nc 28.2 (37) nc nc nc nc
Alcohol, % (n)          
 A: Detected in oral fluid 0.0 (0) 0.2 (1) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.1 (1) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (1)
 B: Self-reported use last 24 h 13.4 (123) 12.3 (56) 9.8 (25) 12.4 (28) 45.0 (59) 27.2 (121) 19.2 (194) 15.3 (201) 17.0 (412)
 Either A or B 13.4 (123) 12.5 (57) 9.8 (25) 12.4 (28) 45.0 (59) 27.2 (121) 19.3 (195) 15.3 (201) 17.0 (413)
Drinking habits and consequences, % (n)          
 Binge drinking (≥6 units) at least once a month 11.8 (108) 25.6 (117) 23.6 (60) 22.6 (51) 58.0 (76) 27.0 (120) 30.4 (307) 15.7 (207) 21.9 (532)
 Reduced efficiency or hangover at work during previous 12 m 12.2 (112) 39.8 (182) 5.5 (14) 9.7 (22) 65.6 (86) 40.9 (182) 27.8 (281) 22.4 (295) 24.6 (598)
 Absence from work due to drinking during previous 12 m 0.9 (8) 9.4 (43) 1.2 (3) 3.5 (8) 20.6 (27) 8.8 (39) 7.2 (73) 3.9 (51) 5.3 (128)
  1. aGender was not reported by 109 participants
  2. nc: Data was not collected for all groups of participants