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Table 1 Composition of foundry dusta and corresponding toxicological data

From: Health status of male steel workers at an electric arc furnace (EAF) in Trentino, Italy

Elements mg/kg of dusts % of total IARC Classificationb non-cancer health effects
Iron (Fe) 197000 78   Intestine, liver, heart
Aluminium (Al) 18970 7.64   Central Nervous System (CNS), bone
Zinc (Zn) 14340 5.68   Intestine, genitourinary, CNS [67, 73]
Manganese (Mn) 12500 4.95   CNS [74]
Total hydrocarbons 2960 1.17 (see P.A.H.) (see P.A.H.)
Lead (Pb) 2860 1.13 2A (inorganic compounds) and 2B CNS, liver, kidney [75]
Chromium (Cr) (total) 2230 0.88 1 Skin, bone, kidney [75]
Copper (Cu) 810 0.32   Liver, kidney, skin, bone, teeth
Nickel (Ni) 510 0.20 1 (compounds) and 2B Skin, bone, teeth, diabetes [25, 56]
Cadmium (Cd) 30 0.0118 1 Liver, kidney, eye, bone, diabetes [57]
P.A.H. 3.66–44.67 0.009 1 (benzo[a]pyrene), 2A, 2B and 3 Heart (attack), teratogenic [16]
Mercury (Hg) 9 0.0035 2B (methyl mercury) and 3 CNS, liver, kidney, diabetes [56]
Arsenic (As) 4 0.0015 1 CNS, diabetes [56]
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) 0.092–0.693 0.0001 1 Endocrine disruptor, teratogenic
Dioxins (PCDD/F) 107.8 ng/TEQ / 1 Endocrine disruptor, teratogenic [44]
  1. afrom Agenzia Provinciale per la Protezione dell’Ambiente (APPA) of Trento, 12th December 2006 (dioxins excluded)
  2. bInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification: group 1: carcinogenic for humans; group 2A: probable carcinogenic for humans; group 2B: possible carcinogenic for humans; Group 3: unclassified as to carcinogenic for humans