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Table 3 Influence of several job-related conditions on the attractiveness of commuting to a rural/small-town area – differences due to gender and general practice career preference

From: Willingness to commute among future physicians: a multicenter cross-sectional survey of German medical students

Potential influence factor Students’ assessment of the increase of the attractiveness of commuting
(0 = no increase, + 1 = slight increase, + 2 = medium increase, + 3 = strong increase, + 4 = very strong increase)
All Male Female p* GP career preferred Others p*
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Working time
 To work full-time 0.9 ± 1.3 1.1 ± 1.4 0.8 ± 1.2 0.003 1.0 ± 1.3 1.0 ± 1.3 0.882
 To work full-time, but compressed to 3½ days per week 1.8 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.4 0.984 2.1 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.4 0.044
 To work part-time (less working days per week) 1.9 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.3 2.0 ± 1.3 < 0.001 2.2 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.3 0.005
 To work part-time (reduced daily working time) 1.4 ± 1.3 1.1 ± 1.2 1.5 ± 1.3 < 0.001 1.9 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.3 < 0.001
 Job sharing with colleagues (2 days per week rural, 3 days in big city) 1.9 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.3 2.0 ± 1.3 0.002 2.0 ± 1.5 2.0 ± 1.3 0.954
 Existence of an adequate accommodation option 1.2 ± 1.3 1.4 ± 1.3 1.2 ± 1.3 0.012 1.2 ± 1.3 1.2 ± 1.3 0.723
 Defined time limit for the job (e.g. 5 years) 1.2 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 1.2 0.915 1.1 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 1.2 0.243
Remuneration
 Time getting to work is paid as working time, additional to it 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 0.876 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.1 0.683
 Time getting to work is paid as working time, included into it 2.9 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.2 3.0 ± 1.1 0.266 3.0 ± 1.1 2.9 ± 1.1 0.334
 Time getting to work is utilizable for organizational tasks 1.8 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.2 1.7 ± 1.3 0.048 1.9 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.2 0.174
 Remuneration is significantly higher than in the big city 2.8 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.1 0.647 2.9 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.1 0.436
Mode of transport
 Getting to work by using own car 1.6 ± 1.4 1.7 ± 1.4 1.6 ± 1.4 0.352 1.6 ± 1.4 1.6 ± 1.4 0.903
 Good public transport connection 2.1 ± 1.3 2.1 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.3 0.223 2.2 ± 1.3 2.1 ± 1.3 0.539
 Organization of a car pool 1.4 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 1.2 1.5 ± 1.2 0.017 1.4 ± 1.2 1.4 ± 1.2 0.611
 A driver service is picking me up (from the doorstep to work, and back) 2.0 ± 1.5 1.9 ± 1.5 2.1 ± 1.5 0.020 1.8 ± 1.6 2.0 ± 1.5 0.149
Assuming the consideration of working office-based: legal structure and organization
 Working self-employed in a single practice 1.4 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.3 0.024 1.8 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 1.3 < 0.001
 Working self-employed in a joint practice (2–3 physicians) 2.3 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 1.1 < 0.001 2.7 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 1.2 < 0.001
 Working self-employed in a joint practice (4–6 physicians) 1.7 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.2 0.014 1.8 ± 1.3 1.7 ± 1.2 0.337
 Working as an employee of another physician (office-based) 1.1 ± 1.1 0.8 ± 1.0 1.2 ± 1.2 < 0.001 1.4 ± 1.3 1.0 ± 1.1 0.002
 Working as an employee of an institution, e.g. municipality or KVa 1.0 ± 1.1 0.9 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 1.1 0.003 1.4 ± 1.3 0.9 ± 1.1 < 0.001
 Working as an employee of a medical employer, e.g. hospital or medical service center 1.5 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.2 < 0.001 1.6 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 1.2 0.432
 Mobile surgery (installed in a ‘surgery-bus’, continuous care for several municipalities on different days) 0.8 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 1.0 0.8 ± 1.1 0.749 1.2 ± 1.3 0.7 ± 1.0 < 0.001
 Provision of a home-office to be able to do some work at home (e.g. organizational tasks) 2.1 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 1.3 < 0.001 2.4 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.3 0.022
 Existence of a specifically qualified „supply assistant“, disburdening the physician regarding delegable tasks 2.2 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 1.2 0.010 2.6 ± 1.2 2.1 ± 1.2 < 0.001
 Home visit patients were, if possible, picked up by a driver service and brought to me 1.6 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.3 1.5 ± 1.3 0.245 1.6 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.3 0.926
  1. aKV Kassenärztliche Vereinigung = Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians
  2. * p-values < 0.05 are highlighted in bold