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Table 3 Longitudinal associations between shift work at baseline and diurnal cortisol pattern at follow-up (N = 70)

From: Impact of shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm: a one-year longitudinal study in junior physicians

Cortisol slope Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V
Shift work: No 0 0 0 0 0
Shift work: Yes −0.09 (− 0.18, − 0.01)* −0.11 (− 0.20, − 0.02) * −0.11 (− 0.20, − 0.02)* −0.12 (− 0.21, − 0.04)** −0.12 (− 0.21, − 0.03)**
Total cortisol AUC Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V
Shift work: No 0 0 0 0 0
Shift work: Yes 5.36 (0.20, 10.52) * 6.19 (1.13, 11.25) * 6.33 (1.25, 11.41) * 6.71 (1.55, 11.86) * 6.64 (1.48, 11.79) *
  1. Linear regression, β (95% CI), *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
  2. Model I: adjustment for biological factors (age and gender)
  3. Model II: Model I + additional adjustment for work factors (professional tenure and working hours) at baseline
  4. Model III: Model II + additional adjustment for family factors (partnership and children) at baseline
  5. Model IV: Model III + additional adjustment for behavioral factors (smoking, risky alcohol use, physical activity, overweight and obesity) at baseline
  6. Model V: Model IV + additional adjustment for cortisol secretion at baseline