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Table 1 Sample characteristics for individuals included in fixed effects regressions (Wave 2009 and 2013, pooled; 2140 observations)

From: Leadership position and physician visits – results of a nationally representative longitudinal study in Germany

  Men (1476 observations) Women (664 observations)
N/Mean %/SD N/Mean %/SD
Age (in years) 48.3 9.4 46.2 9.3
Married, living together with spouse 372 25.2% 288 43.4%
Self-rated health (from 1 = “very good” to 5 = “bad”) 2.5 0.8 2.5 0.8
Number of chronic diseases 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.7
Number of chronic diseases: 0 944 64.0% 422 63.5%
Number of chronic diseases: 1 420 28.4% 182 27.4%
Number of chronic diseases: 2 94 6.4% 43 6.5%
Number of chronic diseases: 3 16 1.1% 16 2.4%
Number of chronic diseases: > 3 2 0.1% 1 0.2%
- Agreeableness 15.4 2.9 16.0 2.9
- Conscientiousness 17.6 2.5 18.2 2.4
- Extraversion 14.5 3.3 15.4 3.3
- Openness to experience 13.6 3.3 14.2 3.5
- Neuroticism 10.1 3.4 11.3 3.5
Physician visits in the preceding 3 months 2.1 3.2 2.5 3.0
Leadership position
 Top management 319 21.6% 91 13.7%
 Middle management 416 28.2% 161 24.3%
 Lower management 477 32.3% 283 42.6%
 Highly qualified specialist position 264 17.9% 129 19.4%