Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Risk factors for work-related MSD in hairdressers

From: Musculoskeletal health, work-related risk factors and preventive measures in hairdressing: a scoping review

Identified risk factors Outcome Comparison category Statistical measure
(%a; OR; RR; r; p-value)
Author (year)
(1) Awkward postures and movements of the spine
 - working in static postures WRMSD 91% Aweto et al. (2015) [41]
 - bending or twisting back WRMSD 28%  
 - constantly twisting the spine WRMSD 53% Cruz et al. (2015) [42]
 - bending the spine forward > 50% of the time back pain sig. Correlation (p < 0.001) Puckree (2009) [52]
 - awkward back postures (back is bent or twisted) WRMSD 64% Tsigonia et al. (2009) [38]
 - working postures WRMSD and diagnosis 81 and 5% Leino et al. (1999) [12]
 - uncomfortable postures (body, neck, shoulders) WRMSD yes vs. no OR 2.8 (95%CI 1.4–5.5)b Mussi et al. (2008) [48]
 - working with spinal rotation WRULD yes vs. no OR 2.1, p < 0.05 b DeSmet et al. (2009) [43]
 - awkward back postures back pain yes vs. no RR >10c Hassan et al. (2015) [14]
 - working in static postures 6–8 h/day WRMSD VDU vs. HD work OR 1.6 (95%CI 1.1–2.2)c Douwes et al. (2001) [45]
(2) Strenuous hand or arm postures and movements
 - repetition of a task WRMSD 71% Aweto et al. (2015) [41]
 - repetitive movements WRMSD and diagnosis 66 and 5% Leino et al. (1999) [12]
 - position of arms at or above shoulder level back pain sig. Correlation (p < 0.001) Puckree (2009) [52]
 - working with equipment above shoulder level WRMSD 63% Cruz et al. (2015) [42]
 - strenuous shoulder movements shoulder pain / hand/wrist pain yes vs. no OR 6.0 (95%CI 1.7–21.5)b /
OR 25.3 (95%CI 2.8–229.1)b
Tsigonia et al. (2009) [38]
 - strenuous shoulder movements neck pain / shoulder pain yes vs. no RR 2.4 (95%CI 1.4–4.1)c /
RR 3.5 (95% CI 2.0–6.0)c
Hassan et al. (2015) [14]
 - working with elevated arms shoulder pain (score) % working time > 60°
% working time > 60° > 5 s
RR 1.3 (95%CI 1.1–1.5)b /
RR 2.0 (95%CI 1.5–2.6)b
Hanvold et al. (2015) [36]
 - working with hands above shoulder level 6–8 h/day WRMSD VDU vs. HD work OR 8.4 (95%CI 4.1–15.8)c Douwes et al. (2001) [45]
 - frequent elbow movements 6–8 h/day WRMSD   OR 2.4 (95%CI 1.7–3.3)c  
 - extreme wrist extension/flexion 6–8 h/day WRMSD   OR 2.6 (95%CI 1.4–4.8)c  
 - frequent manual material handling neck pain / hand/wrist pain yes vs. no RR 3.1 (95%CI 1.4–6.8)c /
RR 2.6 (95%CI 1.3–4.9)c
Hassan et al. (2015) [14]
 - frequent manual material handling neck pain / knee pain yes vs. no OR 12.6 (95%CI 2.1–75.5)b /
OR 6.4 (95%CI 1.9–21.4)b
Tsigonia et al. (2009) [38]
(3) Workload and biomechanical strain
 - stress and working overtime WRMSD 83 and 97% Cruz et al.(2015) [42]
 - no adequate uninterrupted breaks between clients WRMSD 30% Douwes et al. (2001) [45]
 - no adequate rest breaks WRMSD 72.4% Aweto et al. (2015) [41]
 - large number of clients per day and working overtime WRMSD 92 and 94%  
 - working at physical limit WRMSD 34%  
 - large number of clients per day WRULD < 8 vs. 10–15 clients OR 6.7, p < 0.01b DeSmet et al. (2009) [43]
- excessive work WRULD low vs. very high OR 6.1, p < 0.01b  
 - high perceived exertion knee pain yes vs. no OR 5.3 (95%CI 1.4–21)b Tsigonia et al. (2009) [38]
 - high job demands hand/wrist pain yes vs. no OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8–32.1)b  
 - putting intense effort on hands WRMSD 63% Cruz et al.(2015) [42]
 - high mechanical workload neck and shoulder pain / workload levels workload score (0–24) /
HD & EL vs. media & design trainees
RR 1.01 (95%CI 1.00–1.02)d, b RR 1.36 (95%CI 1.3–1.5)d, b Hanvold et al. (2014) [35]
 - high sustained muscle activity shoulder pain (score) muscle activity (0–100%)e median 52% (range 24–91%) r 0.2, p < 0.001 Hanvold et al. (2015) [36]
(4) Prolonged standing or sitting
 - standing during work > 75% of the time back pain sig. Correlation (p < 0.01) Puckree (2009) [52]
 - prolonged standing WRMSD and diagnosis 65 and 1% Leino et al. (1999) [12]
 - prolonged standing feet/leg pain / knee pain yes vs. no RR 5.3 (95%CI 1.8–15.4)c /
RR 21.0 (95%CI 2.8–156.7)c
Hassan et al. (2015) [14]
 - prolonged standing and sitting hand/wrist pain yes vs. no OR 55.7 (95%CI 8.8–354.9)b Tsigonia et al. (2009) [38]
(5) Other factors
 - > 15 years in the profession WRMSD < 5 vs. 15–45 years OR 3.0 (95%CI 1.2–7.9)b Mussi et al. (2008) [48]
 - years of work experience DASH score / NPDI score r 0.7, /r 0.7, p < 0.001 Kaushik & Patra (2014) [37]
 - lack of acknowledgment and uncomfortable postures WRMSD 1–23 vs. 29–35 score OR 3.5 (95%CI 1.5–8.3)b Mussi et al. (2008) [48]
 - mental stress WRMSD and diagnosis 51 and 2% Leino et al. (1999) [12]
 - burnout WRULD low vs. very high OR 8.6, p < 0.001b DeSmet et al. (2009) [43]
 - bordering ambient temperature (high) WRULD yes vs. no OR 2.5, p < 0.05b  
 - female gender WRULD female vs. male OR 3.1, p < 0.05b  
 - sudden movements WRMSD 12% Aweto et al. (2015) [41]
 - low co-worker support back pain/ hand/wrist pain yes vs. no OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8–32.1)b /
OR 5.1 (95%CI 1.2–21.4)b
Tsigonia et al. (2009) [38]
(6) Hairdressing task as risk factor for MSD
 - hair styling WRULD REBA index f (% high & very high risk for MSD) 69% Mahdavi et al. (2013) [46]
 - hair dying WRULD   66%  
 - hair cutting WRULD   64%  
 - trimming face WRULD   62%  
 - doing make up WRULD   53%  
- trimming eye brows WRULD   49%  
- shampooing hair at least 50%/day WRMSD OCRA indexg index 5.0 Mastrominico et al. (2007) [54]
- cutting hair at least 50%/day WRMSD   index 8.1  
 - styling hair at least 50%/day WRMSD   index 9.4  
- dying hair at least 50%/day WRMSD   index 9.0  
  1. Abbreviations: DASH Disability of Arm, Shoulder, Hand Index, EL Electrician, HD hairdressers, NPDI Neck Pain Disability Index, OCRA Occupational Repetitive Action check list, OR odds ratio, REBA Rapid Entire Body Assessment, RR relative risk, VDU Visual Display Unit, WRMSD work-related musculoskeletal disorders/discomfort, WRULD work-related upper limb disorders/discomfort
  2. aSelf-rated risk factors for WRMSD/WRULD
  3. bResults from adjusted analysis
  4. cData were calculated from the authors of the study
  5. dEach increase in mechanical workload was associated with 1% increase in neck and shoulder pain in women (the majority in the group were female hairdresser (n = 163) compared to 5 female electrician trainees)
  6. eRelative time of sustained trapezius muscle activity during the working day: low (0–29%), moderate (30–49%) and high (50–100%)
  7. fREBA index: lower risk for MSD (< 3), moderate risk (4–7), high risk (8–10), very high risk (11–15)
  8. gOCRA index: no risk for MSD (< 4.5), moderate risk (4.6–9), high risk (> 9)