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Table 2 Outcome and measurement of HRV, characteristics of subjects and results of STARD HRV

From: Heart rate variability as a strain indicator for psychological stress for emergency physicians during work and alert intervention: a systematic review

Author, year method Outcome and measurement of HRV Characteristics and risk factors of subjects STARD HRV
using HRV between alert intervention
Petrowski et al., 2019 [41] ECG at shift, chest belt, Within Clinical-Day and Air-Day: HR↑, SDNN↑, RMSSD↔, LF/HF↓*Control-Day and Air-Day: HR↔: SDNN↓, RMSSD↓, LF/HF↔ Age 44.95 ± 4.8 years, n = 20, females = 3, males = 17, BMI Ø 26.39 kg/m2, smokers = 3 16.5
Schneider et al., 2017 [42] 24-h ECG, chest belt, Within before and primary care time: SDNN↓**, RMSSD↓*, pNN50↓*. LF%↑, HF%↓*, LF/HF↑*, LFnu↑**, HFnu↓**, LF↑, HF↓*. SD1↓*, SD2↓**, PeEn↑**, ApEN↑**, SampEn↑**, ShanEn↓**, D2↑* Age mean 38.4 years, n = 13, females = 2, males = 11, recordings n = 23, 15
Using HRV in other question areas
Dutheil et al., 2012 [43] 24-h-ECG, within 24 h or 14 h shift and clerical day without patient contact (control day):
24 h: RMSSD↓*, LogLF/HF↑*. 14 h: RMSSD↓, LogLF/HF↑*.
24 h and 14 h: RMSSD 14 > 24 h*, LogLF/HF 24 > 14
Age 39.1 ± 6.9 years, n = 19, females = 12, males = 7, BMI Ø 22.8 kg/m2, 8.5
Kotov et al., 2012 [44] ECG at work, between Comparison Burnout syndrome (BS): no signs 0 and alarm stage I in groups of task-oriented or emotion-oriented behavorial coping strategy. Task-oriented: SDNN↓*, RMSSD↓*, pNN50↓, VLF↑*, LF↓*, HF↓*, LF/HF↑, SI↑, CI↑.
Emotion-oriented: SDNN↑, RMSSD↑, pNN50↑, VLF↓*, LF↓*, HF↓*, VLF↑ *, LF/HF↔, SI↑, CI↑
n = 19 (females = 12, males = 7) task-oriented: BS 0 n = 10, BS 1 n = 10, emotion-oriented: BS 0 n = 15, BS 1 n = 9, BS 0 (females = 14, males = 11) BS 1 (females = 11, males = 8) 6.5
  1. within = within-subject-design, between = between-subject-design. BMI body mass index. Significant p-values are marked with asterisks (* for p < 0.05 and ** p < 0.001)
  2. HRV parameter: Time domain, SDNN standard deviation of all normal-to-normal R-R intervals, RMSSD root mean square of successive differences of R-R intervals, NN50 the number of pairs of successive normal-to-normal R-R intervals that differ by more than 50 ms, pNN50 percentage of successive NN intervals that differ by more than 50 ms. Frequency domain: VLF Very low frequency power, 0.003–0.04 hz, LFpow low frequency power, 0.04–0.15 hz, LFnu low frequency normalized units, HF pow high frequency power, 0.15–0.4 Hz, HFnu high frequency normalized units, LF/HF-ratio. Non-linear domain: SD1 and SD2 standard deviations of the Poincare plot, PeEn permutation entropy, ApEn approximate entropy, SampEn sample entropy, ShanEn Shannon entropy of diagonal line lengths’ probability distribution, D2 correlation dimension. Others: SI strain index, CI centrilization index