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Table 4 Group differences between police and a general Norwegian population sample. General population: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (N = 61,216)

From: An exploration of job stress and health in the Norwegian police service: a cross sectional study

   Police General population
Females   mean SD mean SD p
Age HADS-Ab      
20–29   4.0 (2.6) 4.5 (3.2) *
30–39   4.2 (3.0) 4.6 (3.4) *
40–49   4.2 (3.3) 4.6 (3.5) Ns
50–59   4.1 (3.2) 4.8 (3.6) Ns
  HADS-Db      
20–29   1.6 (1.9) 2.2 (2.4) ***
30–39   2.5 (2.5) 2.7 (2.8) Ns
40–49   3.0 (3.1) 3.2 (3.0) Ns
50–59   3.2 (3.2) 3.7 (3.1) Ns
Males       
Age HADS-Ab      
20–29   3.2 (2.3) 4.1 (2.9) ***
30–39   3.7 (2.8) 4.2 (3.1) ***
40–49   4.0 (3.1) 4.2 (3.3) *
50–59   3.6 (3.3) 4.0 (3.6) *
  HADS-Db      
20–29   1.5 (1.9) 2.4 (2.4) ***
30–39   2.8 (2.8) 2.9 (2.7) Ns
40–49   3.6 (3.1) 3.6 (3.0) Ns
50–59   3.7 (3.2) 4.1 (3.2) *
  1. Note. *p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.
  2. b HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale