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Table 3 SEM classification of individual PM10particles.

From: Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

PM10 coarse fraction (diameter > 2.5 and < 10 μm)
Spherical Cluster Irregular
n = 13 n = 45 n = 86
Element Min Max Min Max Min Max
C 26.5 68.6 17.2 60.0 14.2 59.1
O 25.6 45.0 25.7 44.8 11.9 49.4
S nd nd 0.8 4.1 3.8 12.0
Fe 0.4 1.9 0.3 12.0 0.4 11.8
Cu 0.4 1.0 0.7 1.5 0.4 3.6
PM10 fine fraction (diameter < 2.5 μm)
Spherical Cluster Irregular Soot Aggregate
n = 12 n = 10 n = 28 n = 22
Element Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
C 13.0 60.2 20.6 55.8 18.8 44.1 23.3 54.0
O 27.2 43.5 30.0 44.3 25.8 51.3 21.5 41.9
S nd nd nd nd 0.5 1.9 nd nd
Fe 0.6 3.1 0.7 3.3 0.4 2.3 0.4 0.9
Cu 0.5 1.0 nd nd 0.7 1.2 0.5 1.5
  1. SEM = Scanning electron microscopy; nd = not detected