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Table 1 KNR Process Flow Descriptions in Figure 1

From: New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

Process Flows Description
(2) to (3) Ground matte lifted to roasters @ 25 m elevation using bucket elevators (144 t/day)a
(3) to (3) Cooled calcine to air classification in closed circuit regrind @ 35 m elevation (216 t/day)
(3) to (6) Calcine to copper leach (205 t/day)
(6) to (5) Residue fine fraction to anode smelting (97 t/day)
(5) to (9)b Anodes to Ni electrorefining
(6) to (4) Residue coarse fraction to Mond reducers before 1953 (hydrogen reduction after) (46 t/day)
(4) to (10) Reduced Cu leach residue to copper cementation (38 t/day)
(10) to (3) Cement Cu (17 t/day) and dried cement Cu slimes (23 t/day) to roastersc
(10) to/from (11)d Cement Cu slimes to drying (40 t/day) before transfer to roastersc
(10) to (15) Crude Cobaltic Hydroxide to Cobalt refinery
  1. Sources: Thornhill (1986) [F2] and [F4]. a Ni substances handled daily in fine solids form (averages daily tonnages in 1958). b Includes deliver of anodes from building # 4 or 13 to # 11, 21, 22 or 23. c High As dust levels before 1953. d Building # 11 is a 3storey structure containing 32 Cu cementation tanks, extending through 1st and 2nd floors, and loaded from the 3rd floor; 13 cement Cu filters (3rd floor); 2 cement Cu driers (1st floor); 15 Co precipitate filters (3rd floor); 16 Fe precipitate filters (3rd floor); 8 anode slime filters & 13 clarification filters (2nd floor); and 6 Fe precipitation tanks (1st floor). Workers in this section were classified as electrolysis workers. See Figures 4 and 5.