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Table 10 Lung and nasal cancer risk in other nickel operations with environmental exposures to soluble nickel

From: New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

Location of nickel operation & Category of work Variable with levels Follow up period Lung cancer Nasal cancer
    Obs SIR/SMR Obs SIR/SMR
Clydach Wales refinery: Year first employed:      
All workersa Before 1920 1931–1985 83 617j, n 55 37647j, n
" 1920–1929 1931–1985 88 314j, n 12 7255j, n
" 1930–1939 1931–1985 20 138j 1 1434j, n
" 1940–1949 1940–1985 14 118j 0 -
" 1950–1992 1950–1985 9 84j 0 -
All workersb 1953–1992 1958–2000 28 139j, k 1 995j, n
" 1953–1962 1958–2000 18 137j   
" 1963–1972 1963–2000 10 156j   
" 1973–1992 1973–2000 0 0   
Port Colborne Ontario refinery:c, d Duration of exposure:      
LC&S workers ≥ 5 years 1950–1984 38 366j, n 15 17045j, n
" 25+ years " 7 363j, n 0 -
" Total " 72 241j, n 19 7755j, n
Non-LC&S workers ≥ 5 years " 29 97j 0 -
" 25+ years " 17 89j 0 -
" Total " 30 93j 0 -
Nickel anode workp " " 7 91j   
Electrolytic workp " " 23 99j   
Yard/Transportation workp " " 21 87j   
Harjavalta Finland smelter & refinery:e       
All nickel exposed workers Latency 20+ years 1953–1995 20 212i, m 2 1590i, n
Smelter workers Latency 20+ years " 13 200i, l 0 -
" 5+ years exposed " 8 101i 0 -
" <5 years exposed " 7 250i, l 0 -
Refinery workers Latency 20+ years " 6 338i, m 2 6710i, n
" 5+ years exposed " 3 199i 2 7520i, n
" <5 years exposed " 3 375i, l 0 -
Thompson Manitoba refinery:f, g Year first employed:      
All workers 1960–1986 1960–1986 25 116j 0 -
Salaried workers 1960–1986 1960–1986 5 155i 0 -
Miners (hourly workers) 1960–1986 1960–1986 7 96j 0 -
Smelter workers (hourly) 1960–1986 1960–1986 4 155i 0 -
Refinery workers (hourly) 1960–1986 1960–1986 6 172j 0 -
British nickel plating company:h Year first employed:      
All workers 1945–1975 1945–1993 11 108j 0 -
  1. a Easton et al. (1992) [13]. b Sorahan et al. (2005) [21]. c Roberts et al. (1989) [9, 10]. d 15+ years since first exposure. e Antilla et al. (1998) [23]. f Roberts et al. (1991) [F1]. g Male workers with 15+ years since first exposure. Incidence ratios include salaried & hourly workers; mortality ratios include hourly workers. h Pang et al. (1996) [24]. i SIR- Standardized Incidence Ratio. j SMR- Standardized Mortality Ratio. k p < 0.1. l p < 0.05. m p < 0.01. n p < 0.001. p Included all men who ever worked in the given category from their first date of work in that category. CI-Confidence Interval. LC&S-Leaching, Calcining and Sintering work. Non-LC&S work included the electrolysis and nickel anode departments, yard and transportation work.