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Table 8 Relative exposure to nickel species [%] predicted by ICNCM (1990) [3] and Grimsrud et al. (2000) [5] JEMs for a hypothetical KNR worker with 10 years of continuous postwar employment by time period & job category a

From: New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

   Nickel exposure fractions by species [%]
   ICNCM (1990) Grimsrud et al. (2000)
Category of work Time period Metallic Oxidic Sulphidic Soluble Metallic Oxidic Sulphidic Soluble
Roasting (day workers) 1946–1955 3 94 3 0 3 72 15 10
  1956–1965 5 89 5 0 3 72 15 10
  1966–1975 5 89 5 0 3 72 15 10
  1976–1985 4 78 19 0 2 76 10 12
Old smelter bldg. no. 1 (day workers) 1946–1955 11 86 3 0 15 70 4 10
  1956–1965 20 76 5 0 18 68 4 10
  1966–1975 18 44 39 0 18 68 4 10
Calcining, smelting 1946–1955 0 94 6 0 1 84 5 10
  1956–1965 0 94 6 0 1 84 5 10
  1966–1975 0 94 6 0 1 84 5 10
  1976–1985 0 81 19 0 1 78 10 11
Nickel electrolysis 1946–1955 0 16 16 68 1 8 5 86
  1956–1965 0 16 16 68 1 8 5 86
  1966–1975 0 16 16 68 1 8 5 86
  1976–1985 0 10 10 81 2 10 4 84
Copper leaching 1946–1955 0 50 0 50 1 49 1 49
  1956–1965 0 50 0 50 1 49 1 49
  1966–1975 NA NA NA NA 1 49 1 49
  1976–1985 NA NA NA NA 1 49 1 49
Copper cementation 1946–1955 33 33 0 33 45 5 5 45
  1956–1965 33 33 0 33 45 5 5 45
  1966–1975 33 33 0 33 45 5 5 45
  1. a Percentages are calculated for each group of nickel exposures shown in Table 7, identified by species, category of work, time period and ICNCM (1990) [3] or Grimsrud et al. (2000) [5] study. Data may not sum to 100 due to rounding error. NA: Not Applicable.