Spine parameter | |

Trunk length D (TLD) (mm) | Spatial distance between the markers VP and DM |

Trunk length S (TLS) (mm) | Spatial distance between the markers VP and SP |

Sagittal trunk decline (STD) (°) |
Inclination of the trunk length D marked line from the perpendicular to the sagittal plane. Tilt ventrally (negative values) = flexion Tilt dorsally (positive values) = extension |

Frontal trunk decline (FTD) (°) |
Inclination of the trunk length D marked line from the perpendicular to the frontal plane. Tilt anteriorly (negative values) = possible lordosis Tilt dorsally (positive values) = possible kyphosis |

Axis decline (AD) (°) |
Deviation of the line of the area marked by the trunk length D line of the 90° rotated distance DL-DR ➔decline between upper body and pelvis |

Thoracic bending angle (TBA) (°) | Deviation of the distance VP - KA from the perpendicular |

Lumbar bending angle (LBA) (°) | Deviation of the distance KA - LA from the perpendicular |

Standard deviation lateral deviation (SDLD) (mm) | Root mean squared deviation of the median line of the distance VP - DM |

Maximal lateral deviation (MLD) (mm) |
Maximum deviation of the median line of the distance VP - DM Negative values = deviation to the left Positive values = deviation to the right |

Standard deviation rotation (SDR) (°) | Root mean square deviation of surface rotation of the median line (torsion of the spinous processes of the spine) |

Maximal rotation (MR) (°) | Maximum positive or negative surface rotation on the median line |

Kyphosis angle (KA) (°) | In the sagittal plane measured angle between the upper inflection point of the spine at the thoracolumbar and VP inflection point IP; point of greatest negative surface decline |

Lordosis angle (LA) (°) | Angle between the inflection point at DM and the thoracolumbar inflection point IP |

Pelvis parameter | |

Pelvis distance (PD) (mm) | Spatial distance between SIPS L and SIPS R. |

Pelvis height (PH) (°) | Decline of the connecting line between SIPS L and SIPS R to the horizontal in the frontal plane in degrees |

Pelvis height (mm) | Decline of the connecting line between SIPS L and SIPS R to the horizontal in the frontal plane in millimeter |

Pelvis torsion (°) |
Angle between the surface normal on the two dimples SIPS L and SIPS R Negative differential angle = Normal at point SIPS L is stronger upward as at point SIPS R Positive difference angle = Normal at point SIPS L is stronger downward as at point SIPS R. |

Pelvis rotation (°) | Rotation of the distance SIPS L – SIPS R in the transversal plane |

Shoulder parameter | |

Scapular distance (SDI) (mm) | Distance between the left (AISL) and the lower right scapular angle (AISR). |

Scapular height (SH) (°) |
Height difference between the points AISL and AISR Positive value = AISR higher than AISL Negative value = AISR deeper than AISL |

Scapular rotation (SR) (°) | Rotation of the distance DL-DR in the transversal plane |

Scapular angle left (SAL) (°) / Scapula angle right (SAR) (°) | Best fit straight line on the shoulders to the horizontal. The center point of the regression line is set vertically above AISL / AISR. The greater the angle, the more caudally located the shoulder. |