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Table 1 List and description of back scan parameters

From: Comparison between the musician-specific seating position of high string bow players and their habitual seating position – a video raster stereographic study of the dorsal upper body posture

Spine parameter
 Trunk length D (TLD) (mm) Spatial distance between the markers VP and DM
 Trunk length S (TLS) (mm) Spatial distance between the markers VP and SP
 Sagittal trunk decline (STD) (°) Inclination of the trunk length D marked line from the perpendicular to the sagittal plane.
Tilt ventrally (negative values) = flexion
Tilt dorsally (positive values) = extension
 Frontal trunk decline (FTD) (°) Inclination of the trunk length D marked line from the perpendicular to the frontal plane.
Tilt anteriorly (negative values) = possible lordosis
Tilt dorsally (positive values) = possible kyphosis
 Axis decline (AD) (°) Deviation of the line of the area marked by the trunk length D line of the 90° rotated distance DL-DR
➔decline between upper body and pelvis
 Thoracic bending angle (TBA) (°) Deviation of the distance VP - KA from the perpendicular
 Lumbar bending angle (LBA) (°) Deviation of the distance KA - LA from the perpendicular
 Standard deviation lateral deviation (SDLD) (mm) Root mean squared deviation of the median line of the distance VP - DM
 Maximal lateral deviation (MLD) (mm) Maximum deviation of the median line of the distance VP - DM
Negative values = deviation to the left
Positive values = deviation to the right
 Standard deviation rotation (SDR) (°) Root mean square deviation of surface rotation of the median line (torsion of the spinous processes of the spine)
 Maximal rotation (MR) (°) Maximum positive or negative surface rotation on the median line
 Kyphosis angle (KA) (°) In the sagittal plane measured angle between the upper inflection point of the spine at the thoracolumbar and VP inflection point IP; point of greatest negative surface decline
 Lordosis angle (LA) (°) Angle between the inflection point at DM and the thoracolumbar inflection point IP
Pelvis parameter
 Pelvis distance (PD) (mm) Spatial distance between SIPS L and SIPS R.
 Pelvis height (PH) (°) Decline of the connecting line between SIPS L and SIPS R to the horizontal in the frontal plane in degrees
 Pelvis height (mm) Decline of the connecting line between SIPS L and SIPS R to the horizontal in the frontal plane in millimeter
 Pelvis torsion (°) Angle between the surface normal on the two dimples SIPS L and SIPS R
Negative differential angle = Normal at point SIPS L is stronger upward as at point SIPS R
Positive difference angle = Normal at point SIPS L is stronger downward as at point SIPS R.
 Pelvis rotation (°) Rotation of the distance SIPS L – SIPS R in the transversal plane
Shoulder parameter
 Scapular distance (SDI) (mm) Distance between the left (AISL) and the lower right scapular angle (AISR).
 Scapular height (SH) (°) Height difference between the points AISL and AISR
Positive value = AISR higher than AISL
Negative value = AISR deeper than AISL
 Scapular rotation (SR) (°) Rotation of the distance DL-DR in the transversal plane
 Scapular angle left (SAL) (°) / Scapula angle right (SAR) (°) Best fit straight line on the shoulders to the horizontal. The center point of the regression line is set vertically above AISL / AISR. The greater the angle, the more caudally located the shoulder.