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Table 4 Results of multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis regarding the association of duration of disabling back pain with sociodemographic, lifestyle- and work-related factors (n = 16,346)

From: Prevalence of back pain in employees of a German chemical company: results of a large cross-sectional study

  Multivariable analysis (n = 16,346)
1–7 days vs. 0 days 8–30 days vs. 0 days > 30 days vs. 0 days
Sociodemographic characteristics aOR (95%-CI) aOR (95%-CI) aOR (95%-CI)
 Age
  < 35 (reference)    
  35–39 1.38 (1.17–1.63) 1.88 (1.45–2.44) 1.78 (1.21–2.61)
  40–44 1.23 (1.05–1.43) 2.41 (1.91–3.03) 2.81 (2.02–3.90)
  45–49 1.50 (1.29–1.73) 2.81 (2.25–3.51) 3.41 (2.47–4.70)
  50–54 1.42 (1.22–1.66) 3.22 (2.57–4.04) 4.88 (3.55–6.70)
  ≥ 55 1.23 (1.03–1.47) 3.07 (2.40–3.92) 5.48 (3.92–7.65)
 Gender
  Male (reference)    
  Female 1.02 (0.90–1.14) 1.19 (1.02–1.39) 1.86 (1.54–2.24)
 Marital status
  Single (reference)    
  Married 1.17 (1.04–1.32) 1.32 (1.11–1.56) 1.26 (1.01–1.56)
  Divorced 1.41 (1.17–1.70) 1.49 (1.18–1.89) 1.20 (0.88–1.63)
  Widowed 0.83 (0.47–1.48) 1.70 (0.99–2.90) 1.47 (0.79–2.75)
Lifestyle-related characteristics
 Smoking status
  Non-smoker (reference)    
  Former smoker 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 1.25 (1.10–1.43) 1.55 (1.32–1.82)
  Smoker 1.07 (0.95–1.20) 1.20 (1.04–1.38) 1.51 (1.27–1.81)
Work-related characteristics
 Occupational status
  Managerial staff (reference)    
  Skilled/supervisory worker 1.65 (1.46–1.86) 2.90 (2.41–3.50) 2.72 (2.13–3.47)
  Manual worker 1.93 (1.68–2.20) 4.29 (3.53–5.23) 4.70 (3.64–6.07)
 Work-related stress score (quartiles)
  Q1 (0–6 points; reference)    
  Q2 (7–8 points) 1.41 (1.25–1.59) 1.62 (1.38–1.91) 1.64 (1.33–2.03)
  Q3 (9–10 points) 1.70 (1.50–1.93) 2.28 (1.94–2.67) 2.61 (2.12–3.21)
  Q4 (≥ 11 points) 2.22 (1.96–2.52) 3.34 (2.85–3.92) 4.33 (3.53–5.30)
Back-related variables
 Ever acquired a spinal injury due to an accident
  No (reference)    
  Yes 1.89 (1.52–2.36) 2.63 (2.06–3.35) 4.18 (3.22–5.44)
 History of spondylopathy (ICD-10: M45-M49)
  No (reference)    
  Yes 2.00 (1.37–2.91) 3.24 (2.24–4.69) 5.59 (3.86–8.10)
 History of other dorsopathy excluding back pain (ICD-10: M50-M53)
  No (reference)    
  Yes 1.98 (1.77–2.21) 2.98 (2.63–3.36) 5.12 (4.43–5.90)
  1. aOR adjusted (multinomial) Odds Ratio, 95%-CI 95%-Confidence interval; Working time system and Body-Mass-Index were eligible to be entered into the final multivariable regression model but eliminated during the iterative process of model building