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Table 2 Mean and standard deviation (StD) of the fraction of particles smaller than 100 nm (F< 100) and total number concentration for the dental sprays under investigation

From: Ultrafine particles in scanning sprays: a standardized examination of five powders used for dental reconstruction

Sprays F< 100 Total number concentration
Mean (%) StD (%)
Mean background concentration    (780 ± 580) cm−3
Spray A 83.0 1.6 (5.3 ± 1.0) * 105 cm− 3
Spray B 73.2 1.1 (3.3 ± 0.4) * 105 cm− 3
Spray C 93.1 2.8 (5.0 ± 0.5) * 105 cm− 3
Spray D 15.6 15.0 (1.3 ± 0.5) * 105 cm− 3
 - Propellant D alone 100.0 0.0 (0.3 ± 0.2) * 105 cm− 3
Spray E 9.0 6.9 (2500 ± 900) cm− 3