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Table 1 Content of the STRAIN-EOS (second version)

From: Development and psychometric testing of an observation-based assessment tool focusing on work-related stressors among health professionals: the STRAIN-External Observation of work Stressors

STRAIN-EOS questionnaire (second version) items response option content
demographic information
 general information in-house developed single items 4 multiple demographic information on the observed person, date of observation, area of work
framework conditions at work
 observed shift in-house developed single items 3 multiple hierarchical position, details of the observed shift
demands at work
 observed quantitative demands in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2005a 6 5-point Likert scale (1) workload is unevenly distributed; the observed person (2) has to work very fast, (3) does not have time to complete all work tasks, (4) gets behind with his/her work, (5) can take it easy and still do his/her worke, (6) does have enough time for his/her work taskse
 observed sensorial demands in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2005a 5 5-point Likert scale work of the observed person demands (1) a great deal of concentration, (2) very clear and precise eyesight, (3) controlling his/her movements, (4) constant attention, (5) a high level of precision
 observed physical risks in-house developed scale according to EWCS Q30c 4 7-point Likert scale job of the observed person involves (1) tiring or painful positions, (2) lifting or moving people, (3) carrying or moving heady loads, (4) repetitive arm or hand movements
work organization and content
 observed possibilities for development in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2005a 7 5-point Likert scale (1) variety of work, (2) work of the observed person demands a high level of skill or expertise, the observed person (3) has to do the same thing over and over againe, (4) work of the observed person requires taking the initiative; the observed person (5) has the possibility to learn new things through his/her work, (6) can use his/her skills or expertise, (7) has the opportunity to develop his/her skills through work
 observed influence at work in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2005a 10 5-point Likert scale (1) other people make decisions concerning his/her worke, (2) the observed person has a large degree of influence concerning his/her work; observed person has influence on (3) how quickly, (4) when, (5) what (6) how to do his/her work, (7) the amount of work, (8) who to work with, (9) his/her work environment, (10) the quality of his/her work
 observed degree of freedom at work in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2005a 4 5-point Likert scale observed person can (1) decide when to take a break, (2) decide when to take his/her holidays, (3) leave work to chat with a colleague, (4) leave work for short private business
social relations and leadership
 observed predictability in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2017b 2 5-point Likert scale observed person (1) is well informed in advance, e.g. about important decisions, changes or plans for the future, (2) receives all information needed to do his/her work well
 observed social support in-house developed scale according to COSPOQ 2017b 4 5-point Likert scale observed person (1) gets help and support from colleagues or (2) the immediate superior if needed, (3) colleagues or (4) the immediate superior listen to his/her work-related problems
 observed social community in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2005a 3 5-point Likert scale (1) good atmosphere and (2) good cooperation between observed person and colleagues, (3) observed person seems to be part of a community at his/her work
 observed social relations in-house developed scale according to COPSOQ 2005a 2 5-point Likert scale observed person (1) has the possibility to talk to his/her colleagues during work, (2) works isolated from his/her colleaguese
subjective assessment of perceived stress-level during shift
 observer’s estimated level of work-related stress in-house developed single items based on Leistungserfassung in der Pflege (LEP®)d 1 7-point Likert scale observer’s estimated level of work-related stress related to his/her observed shift
questions about non-observable items
 reasons for non-observable items in-house developed single items 1 open documentation of reasons for non-observable items during the observation
  1. aNübling et al. (2005) [29], bNübling et al. (2017) [28], cEurofound (2015) [30], dLEP-AG (2017) [32], ereversed scored item