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Table 3 Prevalence of adverse health manifestations among carpenters (N = 193) and painters (N = 72). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by logistic regression (Statistically significant differences are shown in bold face)

From: Adverse health manifestations in the hands of vibration exposed carpenters - a cross sectional study

  Carpenters
N (%)
Painters
N (%)
Crude
OR (CI)
Age-adjusted
OR (CI)
Sensitivity analysisb
OR (CI)
Symptoms
Negative neural manifestations
  Impaired perception of touch 28 (15) 3 (4) 3.9 (1.1–13.3) 4.4 (1.3–15.0) 4.2 (0.9–19.0)
  Impaired perception of cold 19 (10) 3 (4) 2.5 (0.7–8.8) 2.7 (0.8–9.6) 2.6 (0.5–12.1)
  Impaired perception of warmth 23 (12) 2 (3) 4.7 (1.1–20.6) 5.7 (1.3–25.4) 4.1 (0.9–18.8)
  Tendency to drop things 23 (12) 3 (4) 3.1 (0.9–10.7) 3.3 (0.9–11.5) 2.9 (0.6–13.3)
  Difficulty buttoning clothes 13 (7) 2 (3) 2.5 (0.6–11.5) 3.0 (0.7–14.0) 1.7 (0.3–8.6)
  Impaired grip strength 35 (18) 9 (13) 1.5 (0.7–3.4) 1.7 (0.8–3.9) 1.1 (0.4–2.7)
Positive neural manifestations
  Increased sensation of cold 67 (35) 14 (19) 2.2 (1.1–4.2) 2.5 (1.3–5.0) 2.2 (1.1–4.7)
  Numbness or tingling 51 (26) 16 (22) 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 1.4 (0.7–2.6) 1.3 (0.6–2.8)
  Cramp 26 (14) 8 (11) 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 1.2 (0.5–2.9) 0.8 (0.3–2.1)
  Shaking 22 (11) 4 (6) 2.2 (0.7–6.5) 2.4 (0.8–7.2) 2.2 (0.6–8.2)
  Hand sweat 35 (18) 8 (11) 1.7 (0.8–4.0) 1.5 (0.7–3.6) 1.5 (0.6–3.8)
Provoked manifestations
  White fingers at cold or dampness a 18 (9) 6 (8) 1.1 (0.4–2.9) 1.7 (0.6–4.6) 2.2 (0.6–7.8)
  Pain in fingers when cold 47 (24) 6 (8) 3.5 (1.4–8.7) 3.6 (1.4–8.8) 2.5 (1.0–6.5)
Musculoskeletal symptoms
  Hand/elbow pain 60 (31) 21 (29) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 1.0 (0.5–2.0)
  Neck/shoulder pain 67 (35) 36 (50) 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.6 (0.3–1.0) 0.6 (0.3–1.1)
Clinical findings
 Impaired perception of touch 60 (31) 25 (35) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 1.3 (0.7–2.6) 1.6 (0.7–3.3)
 Impaired perception of cold 12 (6) 6 (8) 0.7 (0.3–2.0) 0.9 (0.3–2.5) 0.5 (0.2–1.6)
 Impaired perception of warmth 7 (4) 3 (4) 0.9 (0.2–3.4) 0.9 (0.2–3.6) 1.0 (0.2–5.4)
 Impaired 2PD 17 (9) 2 (3) 3.4 (0.8–15.1) 4.1 (0.9–18.4) 2.5 (0.5–12.0)
 Increased VPT at 125 Hz 19 (10) 6 (8) 1.2 (0.5–3.1) 1.6 (0.6–4.6) 1.7 (0.5–5.4)
 Increased VPT at 250 Hz 38 (20) 8 (11) 2.0 (0.9–4.4) 2.0 (0.9–4.6) 2.0 (0.8–5.2)
 Increased VPT at 125 and 250 Hz* 42 (22) 10 (14) 1.7 (0.8–.3.7) 2.0 (0.9–4.5.) 2.1 (0.9–5.2)
  1. aTwo painters excluded due to debut of white fingers before age 18
  2. bExcluding participants with diabetes, cardiovascular, thyroid or rheumatic disease, impaired perception of vibration in the foot, or peripheral nerve entrapment in upper extremity/neck (except for carpal tunnel syndrome)